The use of celebrities in advertising has been a common practice
for more than 70 years. Marketers understand the value of featuring people who
are recognized, often admired, or even idolized, by their target audience. Celebrities,
such as actors and actresses, athletes, entertainers and other popular public
figures, are frequently utilized as a way to draw attention to their
advertising messages. Social media influencers are ____. In this paper, I will
discuss the different influences that motivate consumers to purchase products that
are endorsed by celebrities and social media influencers.


idea behind celebrity-endorsed campaigns is simple: to draw attention to the recommended
product and to complement the desired image values. Celebrities are the
preferred choice because they act as role models and are powerful financial and
cultural media figures and image creators. Essentially, celebrities are ideal
because they are more likely to capture and retain a consumer’s attention than
an unknown person would. This idea can be explained by Pavlovian Conditioning,
also known as classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process by
which an unconditioned stimulus (US), a stimulus that naturally produces a
response, is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS), a stimulus that does not
naturally produce the response but comes to elicit the conditioned response
(CR) following the pairing (Shimp 8). In the case of an advertiser using a
celebrity endorsement, the celebrity acts as the unconditioned stimulus, which elicits
a positive affect toward the endorser and acts as the unconditioned response.

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When the celebrity is paired with the brand, the brand then serves as the conditioned
stimulus, which elicits a positive affect toward the brand and acts as the
conditioned response. For example, an avid DC Comics fan may be more likely to
purchase a Speedo brand swim suit after seeing their advertisement endorsed by Jason
Momoa, the actor that plays Aqua Man in the new 2017 Justice League film.


            Although having a celebrity to
endorse your brand’s product can be an important tactic, the recommendation can
sometimes come off as disingenuous because the consumer knows that the
celebrity is being paid, and is likely scripted, to say positive things about
the product. This is why the rise of social media influencers have become a new
focus for brand positioning strategies. Stripping down the production value of
a celebrity endorsed magazine ad or commercial to the bare minimum of a
seemingly average person recording a product review in their bedroom with
nothing but an iPhone and simple editing software is an easy way to communicate
authenticity. As a result, marketers are doubling their investment in
influencer marketing this year, with Instagram influencers alone accounting for
more than $1 billion of marketing spend, according to AdWeek. Research done by Yuchi Zhanga, Wendy W. Moeb, and David A. Schweidel suggests that targeting
influencers to encourage the rebroadcasting of a message can potentially lead
to greater rebroadcasting activity than investing in message content. Rebroadcasting,
or “sharing” in other settings, is an extremely important activity for
marketers, as they attempt to disseminate marketing communications about their
brands on social media.

certain circumstances, tailoring message content to the interests of the influencers
can generate even greater rebroadcasting activity.

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