The Civil War Essay, Research Paper
The Civil War was the most spasmodic and important war in American history. After the Constitution was adopted by all of the States in 1789, unifying the States into one state, differences between the States had been worked out through via medias. By 1861 these differences between the Northern States, which included the Western States, and the Southern States had become so great that via media would no longer work. Therefore, a struggle started within our state that was called the Civil War.
Although causes of the Civil War have long clip been debated by historiographers, there are many grounds that are agreed on. For more than thirty old ages statements between the North and South had been turning. One of these contentions was about revenue enhancements paid on goods brought into this state from foreign states. This sort of revenue enhancement is called a duty. In 1828 Northerners helped acquire the & # 8220 ; Tariff Act & # 8221 ; passed. It raised the monetary values of manufactured merchandises from Europe, which were sold chiefly in the South. The intent of the jurisprudence was to promote the South to purchase the North & # 8217 ; s merchandises. It angered the Southern people to hold to pay more for the goods they wanted from Europe or pay more to acquire goods from the North. Either manner the Southern people were forced to pay more because of the attempts of Northern business communities. Though most of duty Torahs had been changed by the clip of the Civil War, the Southern people still remembered how they were treated by the Northern people. In the old ages before the Civil War the political power in the Federal Government, centered in Washington D.C. , was altering. The Northern and Mid-Western States were going more powerful as the populations increased. The Southern States were losing political power. Merely as the original 13 settlements fought for their independency, the Southern States felt a turning demand for freedom from the cardinal Federal authorization in Washington D.C. They felt that each State should do its ain Torahs. This issue was called & # 8220 ; State & # 8217 ; s Rights & # 8221 ; . Some Southern States wanted to interrupt away from the United States of America and govern themselves. ( The Civil War Homepage )
Probably the most emotional issue of the cause of the Civil War was over the issue of bondage. Farming was the South & # 8217 ; s chief industry and cotton was the primary farm merchandise. Not holding the usage of machines, it took a great sum of human labour to pick cotton. The people in the South needed more people ( slaves ) to work the cotton for them that is why big figure of slaves were used in the South. Many slaves were besides used to supply labour for the assorted family jobs that needed to be done. Many Northerners thought that having slaves was incorrect, for any ground. Therefore, the dissension. Some of those Northerners aloud disagreed with the South & # 8217 ; s Torahs and beliefs refering bondage. Except bondage had been a portion of the Southern manner of life for good over 200 old ages and they didn & # 8217 ; t want to give it up without a battle. The Fundamental law of the United States guaranteed the right to have belongings and protected against anyone taking their belongings. To them a slave was belongings. The people of the Southern States did non like the Northern people stating them that having slaves was a great incorrect. A individual either believes that bondage is right or that bondage is incorrect, so how can two people reasoning over this issue come to a via media? ( The American Civil War ) .
Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860. He vowed that he would maintain the state united and the new western districts would be free from bondage. Many Southerners were afraid that he would non sympathetic to their manner of life and would non handle them reasonably. South Carolina was the first State to divide from the United States shortly after the election of Abraham Lincoln. Six other Southern States rapidly followed and besides left. These States joined together and formed a new state, which they named the Confederate States of America. They elected Jefferson Davis as their first president. On April 12, 1861 the Confederate States of America attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, which was held by Federal ( Union ) military personnels and flew the United States flag. As unfastened struggle kept lifting, other United States resigned and joined the Confederacy. The combat of the Civil War would take four old ages to stop. This state would stay united and bondage would come to an terminal. ( This Hallowed Ground ) .
The Great Battles of the Civil War were waged all across this great state. From New Mexico and Tennessee to Vermont and Florida, 100s of 1000s of Americans died in this battle for freedom. Two of the most celebrated conflict are the Battle of Fort Sumter and the Battle of Gettysburg. ( Fire and Thunder ) .
The Battle of Fort Sumter queerly ended with no casualties. On April 10, 1861, Gen. Beauregard, in bid of the probationary Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the resignation of the Union fort of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commanding officer Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the garrison, which was unable to answer efficaciously. At 2:30 p.m. , April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the fort on the undermentioned twenty-four hours. The barrage of Fort Sumter was the opening battle of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the barrage, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded ( one mortally ) when a cannon exploded prematurely while firing a salutation during the emptying on April 14. ( New Age Encyclopedia ) .
The Battle of Gettysburg had more casualties than any other conflict in the Civil War gauging 51,000 dead. Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Major General George G. Meade & # 8217 ; s Army of the Potomac at the hamlets county place of Gettysburg. On July 1, Confederate forces concentrated on the town from West and north, driving Union guardians back through the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the dark, supports arrived from both sides. On July 2, Lee attempted to assail the Federals, foremost striking the Union left wing at the Peach Orchard, Wheatfield, Devil & # 8217 ; s Den, and the Round Tops with Longstreet & # 8217 ; s and Hill & # 8217 ; s divisions, and so assailing the Union right at Culp & # 8217 ; s and East Cemetery Hills with Ewell & # 8217 ; s divisions. By flushing, the Federal soldiers retained Small Round Top and had repulsed most of Ewell & # 8217 ; s work forces. During the forenoon of July 3, the Confederate foot were driven from their last toe-hold on Culp & # 8217 ; s Hill. In the afternoon, after a preliminary heavy weapon barrage, Lee attacked the Union centre on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault, more popularly known as Pickett & # 8217 ; s Charge, momently broke through the Union line but was driven back because of terrible casualties. Stuart & # 8217 ; s horse attempted to derive the Union rear but was closed off. On July 4, Lee began retreating his ground forces toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His line of hurt work forces stretched more than 14 stat mis from the conflict. ( The Gettysburg Campaign ) .
Another conflict of the war was the Battle of Bull Run 1. This was the following conflict in line after the Battle of Fort Sumter. This was the first major land conflict of the ground forcess in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the Union ground forces under General Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate ground forces, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left wing on Matthews Hill. Contending raged throughout the twenty-four hours as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate supports ( one brigade arriving by railway from the Shenandoah Valley ) extended and broke the Union right wing. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a mob. Although winning, Confederate forces were excessively disorganized to follow through. Confederate General Bee and Colonel Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre & # 8220 ; Stonewall. & # 8221 ; By July 22, the broken Union ground forces reached the safety of Washington. This conflict convinced the Lincoln disposal that the war would be a long and dearly-won matter. McDowell was relieved of bid of the Union ground forces and replaced by Major General George B. McClellan, who set out to reorganise and develop the military personnels.
The following conflict is the Battle of Shiloh. As a consequence of the autumn of Forts Henry and Donelson, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, the commanding officer in the country, was forced to fall back, giving up Kentucky and much of West and Middle Tennessee. He chose Corinth, Mississippi as the presenting country for an violative against Major General Ulysses S. Grant & # 8217 ; s ground forces, before the Army of the Ohio, under Major General Don Carlos Buell, could fall in it. The Confederate cautiousness was a surprise, although a pleasant one, to the Union forces, and it took Grant some clip to acquire a southern violative, along the Tennessee River. Grant received orders to expect Buell & # 8217 ; s Army of the Ohio at the River. Grant did non take to strengthen his place ; instead, he set about boring his work forces, many of which were recruits. Attacking the Union military personnels on the forenoon of the 6th, the Confederates surprised them. Some Federal soldiers made bases and by afternoon, they had established a conflict line at the deep-set route, known as the & # 8220 ; Hornets Nest. & # 8221 ; Repeated Rebel onslaughts failed to transport the Hornets Nest, but artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union military personnels and captured, killed, or wounded most. Johnston had been mortally wounded earlier and his 2nd General P.G.T. Beauregard took over. The Union military personnels made another line covering Pittsburg Landing. Contending continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the following forenoon, the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard & # 8217 ; s ground forces of less than 30,000. Beauregard was unaware of the reaching of Buell & # 8217 ; s ground forces, and launched an onslaught in response to an progress by William Nelson & # 8217 ; s division of Buell & # 8217 ; s ground forces which was, at first, successful. Union military personnels stiffened and began coercing the Confederates back. Beauregard ordered a countermove, which stopped the Union progress but did non interrupt its conflict line. At this point, Beauregard realized that he could non win so he retired from the field and headed back to Corinth. On the 8th, Grant sent General William T. Sherman, in chase of Beauregard. They ran into the Rebel rearguard at Fallen Timbers. Forrest & # 8217 ; s aggressive tactics influenced the Union military personnels to return to Pittsburg Landing. Grant & # 8217 ; s command of the Confederate forces continued. The Confederates continued to fall back until establishing their August offense. ( The Battle That Changed the Civil War ) .
The conflict following the Battle of Shiloh is the Battle of Antietam. On September 16, 1862 Major General George B. McClellan confronted Lee & # 8217 ; s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. September 17, Hooker & # 8217 ; s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee & # 8217 ; s left wing that began the bloodiest twenty-four hours in American military history. Attacks and countermoves swept across Miller & # 8217 ; s corn field and contending swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road finally pierced the Confederate centre, but the Federal advantage was non followed up. Late in the twenty-four hours, Burnside & # 8217 ; s corps eventually got into action, traversing the rock span over Antietam Creek and turn overing up the Confederate right. At a important minute, A.P. Hill & # 8217 ; s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and salvaging the twenty-four hours. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his full force, while McClellan sent in less than three-fourthss of his ground forces, enabling Lee to contend the Federal soldiers to a standstill. During the dark, both ground forcess consolidated their lines. In malice of stultifying casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while taking his hurt South of the river. McClellan did non regenerate the assaults. Aft
Er dark, Lee ordered the beat-up Army of Northern Virginia to retreat across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.
Another conflict is the Battle of Fredricksburg. On November 14, 1862 Burnside, now in bid of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to busy the locality of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The remainder of the ground forces shortly followed. Lee reacted by positioning his ground forces on the highs behind the town. On December 11, Union applied scientists laid five pontoon Bridgess across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal ground forces crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye & # 8217 ; s Highs that resulted in a batch of casualties. Meade & # 8217 ; s division, on the Union left wing, briefly broke into Jackson & # 8217 ; s line but was driven back by a countermove. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the violative and recrossed the river, stoping the run. Burnside initiated a new offense in January 1863, which rapidly bogged down in the winter clay. The stillborn & # 8220 ; Mud March & # 8221 ; and other failures led to Burnside & # 8217 ; s replacing by Major General Joseph Hooker in January 1863.
Another was the Battle of Chancellorsville. On April 27, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker led the V, IX, and XII Corps on a run to turn the Confederate left wing by traversing the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers above Fredericksburg. Passing the Rapidan via Germanna and Ely & # 8217 ; s John fords, the Federal soldiers concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30 and May 1. The III Corps was ordered to fall in the ground forces via United States Ford. Sedgwick & # 8217 ; s VI Corps and Gibbon & # 8217 ; s division remained to show against the Confederates at Fredericksburg. In the interim, Lee left a covering force under Maj. Gen. Jubal Early in Fredericksburg and marched with the remainder of the ground forces to face the Federals. As Hooker & # 8217 ; s ground forces moved toward Fredericksburg on the Orange Turnpike, they encountered increasing Confederate opposition. Hearing studies of overpowering Confederate force, Hooker ordered his ground forces to suspend the progress and to concentrate once more at Chancellorsville. Pressed closely by Lee & # 8217 ; s progress, Hooker adopted a defensive position, therefore giving Lee the enterprise. On the forenoon of May 2, Lt. Gen. T.J. Jackson directed his corps on a March against the Federal left wing, which was reported to be & # 8220 ; hanging in the air. & # 8221 ; Fighting was sporadic on other parts of the field throughout the twenty-four hours, as Jackson & # 8217 ; s column reached its jump-off point. At 5:20 autopsy, Jackson & # 8217 ; s line surged frontward in an overpowering onslaught that crushed the Union XI Corps. Federal military personnels rallied, resisted the progress, and counterattacked. Disorganization on both sides and darkness ended the combat. While doing a dark reconnaissance, Jackson was mortally wounded by his ain work forces and carried from the field. J.E.B. Stuart took impermanent bid of Jackson & # 8217 ; s Corps. On May 3, the Confederates attacked with both wings of the ground forces and massed their heavy weapon at Hazel Grove. This eventually broke the Federal line at Chancellorsville. Hooker withdrew a stat mi and entrenched in a defensive & # 8220 ; U & # 8221 ; with his dorsum to the river at United States Ford. Union generals Berry and Whipple and Confederate general Paxton were killed ; Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded. On the dark of May 5-6, after Union reverses at Salem Church, Hooker recrossed to the north bank of the Rappahannock. This conflict was considered by many historiographers to be Lee & # 8217 ; s greatest triumph.
The Battle of Vicksburg is the following conflict in line. In May and June of 1863, Major General Ulysses S. Grant & # 8217 ; s ground forcess converged on Vicksburg, puting the metropolis and ensnaring a Confederate ground forces under General John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after drawn-out besieging operations. This was the flood tide of one of the most superb military runs of the war. With the loss of Pemberton & # 8217 ; s ground forces and this of import fastness on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was efficaciously split in half. Grant & # 8217 ; s successes in the West boosted his repute, taking finally to his assignment as General-in-Chief of the Union ground forcess.
Then there was the Battle of Chickamauga. After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his violative, taking to coerce the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three ground forces corps consisting Rosecrans & # 8217 ; s ground forces split and put out for Chattanooga by separate paths. In early September 1863, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg & # 8217 ; s army out of Chattanooga, heading South. The Union military personnel followed it and brushed with it at Davis & # 8217 ; Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to run into a portion of Rosecrans & # 8217 ; s ground forces, get the better of them, and so travel back into the metropolis. On the 17th he headed north, meaning to run into and crush the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg marched north on the 18th, his horse and foot fought with Union horse and mounted foot which were armed with Spencer reiterating rifles. Contending began in earnest on the forenoon of the 19th, and Bragg & # 8217 ; s work forces hammered but did non interrupt the Union line. The following twenty-four hours, Bragg continued his assault on the Union line on the left, and in late forenoon, Rosecrans was informed that he had a spread in his line. In traveling units to shore up the supposed spread, Rosencrans created one, and James Longstreet & # 8217 ; s work forces quickly exploited it, driving tierce of the Union ground forces, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over bid and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas so led these work forces from the field go forthing it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the environing highs.
The last conflict in the Civil War was the Battle of Cold Harbor. On May 31, 1864 Sheridan & # 8217 ; s horse seized the hamlets of Old Cold Harbor. Early on June 1, trusting on their new reiterating carbines and weak strengthening, Sheridan & # 8217 ; s cavalrymans threw back an onslaught by Confederate foot. Confederate supports arrived from Richmond and from the Totopotomoy Creek lines. Late on June 1, the Union Corps reached Cold Harbor and assaulted the Confederate plants with some success. By June 2, both ground forcess were on the field, organizing on a seven-mile forepart that extended from Bethesda Church to the Chickahominy River. At morning June 3, the Corps, followed subsequently by the IX Corps, assaulted along the Bethesda Church-Cold Harbor line and were slaughtered at all points. Grant commented in his diary that this was the lone onslaught he wished he had ne’er ordered. The ground forcess confronted each other on these lines until the dark of June 12, when Grant once more advanced by his left wing, processing to James River. On June 14, the II Corps was ferried across the river at Wilcox & # 8217 ; s Landing by conveyances. On June 15, the remainder of the ground forces began traversing on a 2,200-foot long pontoon span at Weyanoke. Abandoning the attacks to Richmond, Grant sought to switch his ground forces rapidly South of the river to endanger Petersburg. ( The Battlefields of the Civil War ) .
One of the biggest parts of the Civil war was the music. 1860 was one of the most musical decennaries in American history, and in no other war than the Civil War did music drama such an of import function among the soldiers. Robert E. Lee wrote in 1864, & # 8220 ; I don & # 8217 ; t believe we can hold an ground forces without music. & # 8221 ; A certain type of music called AmeriMusic was founded in 1996 for the intent of offering a broad assortment of music of chiefly American beginnings as performed by classically trained instrumentalists. The laminitis, Douglas Jimerson, was trained as an opera vocalist, piano player, and musicologist. ( The Civil War Homepage )
The Civil War is said to be the first true modern war. This struggle brought away the usage of the first air force, hot air balloons, and machine guns. The War was besides the first to be reported and presented with picture taking. In add-on, it was the first entire war, intending war was non merely inflicted on soldiers, but civilians, land and metropoliss every bit good. More of import than, possibly, any of the above features is the function that adult females played in this awful four-year struggle.
Unlike any war before this, adult females played an tremendous portion in the lives of soldiers & # 8217 ; , household and place life, and they had a important manus in how the War progressed and finally ended. With the work forces running off left and right to subscribe up for the cause, adult females were left behind to transport out the adult male & # 8217 ; s responsibilities at place. As the War progressed, many adult females of the South had to take on the work of the slaves who had either been freed, or run off. Both the goings of the work forces and the slaves transformed the adult females & # 8217 ; s lives to more than being of domesticity.
Womans saw the War as an chance to be leaders in the battle for abolishment and equality. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were organisers of the National Women & # 8217 ; s Loyalty League which called for a constitutional amendment to stop bondage. They fought for the adult female & # 8217 ; s right to vote, argued against differences in wage between work forces and adult females in fabricating occupations, and fought for the right to be nurses in the attempt to ease the hurting that this War was bring downing.
In add-on to all this, adult females went every bit far as to be undercover agents and soldiers for both sides. Knowing that adult females were non able by jurisprudence to enlist as soldiers, some cloaked themselves as work forces and served in both the Union and Confederate Armies. Many who did this were able to avoid acquiring caught, and served until either acquiring wounded or until the War & # 8217 ; s terminal. Other adult females decided that being a undercover agent was the best manner to function, and there were tonss of Southern, female undercover agents in Washington DC, every bit good as one Northerner being in the Confederate White House.
Probably the most important function of adult females was nursing. Thousands of adult females at the War & # 8217 ; s outset left their places to take attention of deceasing soldiers. At first, many work forces were angered by this new function, and felt that it was unlady-like for adult females to care for bare and enlisted work forces. As the war raged on, nevertheless, and casualties were coming in at of all time increasing Numberss, demand for adult females nurses skyrocketed, and even those physicians who protested so aloud against adult females being in the operating suites with them had to hush themselves. The United States Sanitary Commission, organized by the adult females of the North, ran kitchens, distributed medical supplies and inspected ground forces cantonments to see a criterion of cleanliness. Over 3,000 Union adult females became unpaid nurses during the struggle, and Dorthea Dix, appointed caput of the nursing corps, went unpaid for the full four old ages at her station. Southern nurses were every bit as critical to their cause puting up the largest, most efficient infirmary on either side in Richmond, Virginia.
When speaking about the Civil War, it is excessively frequently radius of as a adult male & # 8217 ; s war, contending on the battlegrounds or functioning on ship in the naval forces. Men ran the shows in both Washington and Richmond, recruited the soldiers, and organized the supply lines and military operations. It was the adult females, nevertheless, who were the line of lifes of the Union and Confederacy. It was the adult females who tended the hurt indefatigably, ensured healthful conditions and fought for causes that work forces were unable and perchance unwilling to contend for. The adult females & # 8217 ; s function in the Civil War is merely every bit important as the adult male & # 8217 ; s, and this fact should non be left out. ( Women in the Civil War )
Of class we all know how it ends. Slavery is now abolished and after a long history of racism and segregation, we are more incorporate now than we were so. There are still the occasional & # 8220 ; Hate Crimes & # 8221 ; that are offenses assailing one peculiar race. Although our universe will ne’er be in perfect harmoniousness with each other, we will ne’er bury the convulsion and bloodshed of the 1000s of work forces who died for our present twenty-four hours freedom.