The East African Orogen (EAO) is an accretionary
orogen that extends from Arabia to East Africa and into Antarctica and correlated
to closure of the Mozambique Ocean, which formed in association with the
breakup of Rodinia 800–900 Ma (Stern, 1994). The Mozambique Belt is the
southern part of the EAO and comprises mostlypre-Neoproterozoic crust with a Neoproterozoic–early
Cambrian tectonothermal overprint (Bingen et al., 2009). The Mozambique Ocean
closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion
between850 and 620 Ma (Fritz et al, 2013). The Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) is
the northern part of the EAO and composed mainly of juvenile Neoproterozoic
crust (e.g. Stern, 1994, 2002; Johnson and Woldehaimanot, 2003; Johnson et al.,
2011). This crust was generated when arc and back arc crust developed within
and around the margins of the Mozam-bique Ocean. The late Proterozoic
(Pan-African, 900–550 Ma) Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) forms the suture between
East and West Gondwana at the northern end of the East African Orogen (EAO). The
Arabian–Nubian Shield was caught between fragments of East and West
Gondwanaland as these collided at about 600 Ma (Meert, 2003). The ANS comprises
Middle Cryogenian–Ediacaran (790–560 Ma) sedimentary and volcanic terrestrial
and shallow-marine successions unconformable on juvenile Cryogenian crust (Johnson
et al., 2013). The ANS extends from Jordan and Ocuppied palastine in the north
to Eritrea and Ethiopia in the south and from Egypt in the west to Saudi Arabia
and Oman in the east. The Nubian Shield is separated by the Red Sea from its
counterpart, the Arabian Shield. The ANS consists of gneisses, granitoids, and
various meta-volcanic and metasedimentary rocks.

The Precambrian basement of the Eastern
Desert of Egypt is the northwestern extension of the Arabian–Nubian Shield
(ANS). The Central Eastern Desert (CED) is characterized by two distinctive tectonostratigraphic
units. The lower unit comprises high-grade metamorphic gneisses, migmatites,
schists and amphibolites and is commonly referred to as the structural basement
(El-Gaby et al.,1990; Loizenbauer et al., 2001). The upper unit includes
low-grade metamorphosed ophiolite slices (serpentinites, pillow lavas, metagabbros),
arc metavolcanics, arc metasediments and is com-monly referred to as structural
cover or the Pan-African nappes (e.g.El-Gaby et al.,1990; Fritz et al., 1996;
Abd El-Rahmana et al., 2012). Both the two units were intruded by syn-tectonic
calc-alkaline granites and metagabbros–diorite complex. The later stage of the
crustal evolution of the CED is characterized by the eruption of the Dokhan
volcanic suite which is associated with the forma-tion of molasse-type Hammamat
sedimentary rocks that were deposited in non-marine, alluvial fan/river
environments (Grothaus et al., 1979; Abd El-Wahed, 2010; Bezenjania et al., 2014).
These crustal rocks were intruded by a series of late to post-tectonic
granites. The syn-tectonic granite in the CED has a magmatic emplacement age of
606–614 Ma (Loizenbauer et al., 2001; Andresen et al., 2010) whereas, the late
to post-tectonic granites were emplaced at ca. 590–550 Ma (Hassan and Hashad, 1990;
Rice et al., 1993). 

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