The scientific study of sources, motives, ratification and preclusion of crimes and the persons involved in conducting those crimes (criminals) and criminal behaviors is known as criminology. It is the sub-branch of sociology. There are different types of criminology:• Bio-criminology• Feminist criminology• Criminalistics• Critical/radical criminology• Political criminologyCRIMINAL JUSTICECriminal Justice can be defined as the phenomenon which is the law enforcement being carried out in investigating the criminal behavior involving the evidence gathering, apprehending, prosecuting, defending, carrying out charges against the crimes, raising court trails, executing punishments and sentencing the criminals. Moreover, it’s the provision of evenhandedness on basis of type of criminal activity.DISTINCTION:• Criminology on one hand explains the sources, nature and degree of crime and behavior and backgrounds of criminals while the Criminal Justice at large refers to the agencies of social-criminal control, justice provision. Like the courts, police department, correction institutions and other such departments to ensure societal justice.
• The experts of criminology, the criminologists are concerned with identifying the suspected causes of crimes while the scholars of criminal justice keep their heed on effective ways to control the crimes being carried out in societies.• Criminal justice refers to universal and policy aspect of field to justice application. While criminology refers to scrutinizing social responses to crimes. • Criminology and criminal justice have separate focuses. As, criminal justice is interdisciplinary study of policing and juvenile justice and correctional institutions.
While criminology has heavy influence encompassing sociology, psychology, biology and law.• Thus, we can say that criminology is the study of crime and criminal justice is the application of criminology and a societal response to crime.HOW CRIMINOLOGY, DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AND CRIME OVERLAP ONE ANOTHER?Deviant behaviors are those actions which deviate from the societal customs values and beliefs.
Thus, it is identification of a line that distinct from simply unusual behavior whereas criminology is related to the study of deviant behavior and on the same page crime is the act that is assumed as harmful or perilous on a social basis that is precisely defined as proscribed or punished under criminal law. So, it can be observed that criminology, deviant behavior and crime are such concepts that overlap in one way or another. As deviant acts are violations of criminal law that’s why the criminology overlaps with the deviant behaviors and crimes are also the result of these unusual normative behaviors in a society which are prompted illegal by law. These crimes not only deviate from norms but also break laws.