Tuberculosis Essay, Research Paper

The Differences and Similarities of Pneumonia and Tuberculosis

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Pneumonia and TB have been blighting the citizens of the universe

for centuries doing 1000000s of deceases. This occurred until the creative activity and

usage of antibiotics become more widely available. These two respiratory

infections have many differences, which include their etiology, incidence and

prevalence, and many similarities in their nonsubjective and capable indexs,

medical intercessions, class, rehabilitation and effects.

To research the relationship between pneumonia and TB we will

analyze a instance survey. Joan is a 35 twelvemonth old adult females who was experiencing all right up boulder clay

a few hebdomads ago when she develop a sore pharynx. Since her sore pharynx she had

been sing thorax hurting, a loss of appetency, coughing and a low febrility so

she went to see her physician. Her physician admitted her to the infirmary with

bacterial pneumonia and after three yearss of unsuccessful intervention it was

discovered that she really had active TB. This misdiagnosis shows

the similarities between the two diseases and how easy they can be confused.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a serious infection or redness of the lungs with

exudate and consolidation. Pneumonia can be one of two types: lobar pneumonia

or bronchial pneumonia. Lobar pneumonia affects one lobe of a lung while

bronchial pneumonia affects the countries closest to the bronchial tube ( O & # 8217 ; Toole, 1992 ) .

In the United States over three million people are infected with pneumonia each

twelvemonth ; five per centum of which dice.

Etiology

There are over 30 causes for pneumonia nevertheless there are 4 chief causes

which are bacterial, viral, mycoplasma and fungous ( American Lung Association,

1996 ) . Bacterial pneumonia onslaughts everyone from immature to old, nevertheless

& # 8220 ; alkies, the debilitated, post-operative patients, people with respiratory

disease or viral infections and people who have weakened immune systems are at

greater hazard & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) . The Pneumococcusis bacterium,

which is classified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, causes bacterial pneumonia and

can be prevented by a vaccinum. In 20 & # 8211 ; 30 % of the instances the infection spreads

to the blood watercourse ( MedicineNet, 1997 ) which can take to secondary infections.

Viral pneumonia histories for half of all pneumonia instances ( American Lung

Association, 1996 ) unluckily there is no effectual intervention because

antibiotics do non impact viruses. Many viral pneumonia instances are a consequence of

an influenza infection and normally affect kids, nevertheless they are non

normally serious and last merely a short clip ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .

The & # 8220 ; virus invades the lungs and multiplies, but there are about no physical

marks of lung tissue going filled with fluid. It finds many of its victims

among those who have preexistent bosom or lung disease or are pregnant & # 8221 ;

( American Lung Association, 1996 ) . In the more terrible instances it can be

complicated with the invasion of bacteriums that may ensue in symptoms of

bacterial pneumonia ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .

During World War II mycoplasma were identified as the & # 8220 ; smallest free-

populating agents of disease in world, unclassified as to whether bacteriums or

viruses, but holding features of both & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .

Mycoplasma pneumonia is & # 8220 ; frequently a easy developing infection & # 8221 ; ( MedicineNet,

1997 ) that frequently affects older kids and immature grownups ( American Lung

Association, 1996 ) .

The other chief cause of pneumonia is fungous pneumonia. This is caused

by a fungus that causes pneumocystic carinii pneumonia ( PCP ) and is frequently & # 8220 ; the

foremost mark of unwellness in many individuals with AIDS and? can be successfully

treated in many instances & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .

In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance bacterial pneumonia was suspected because her immune

system was weakened by her sore pharynx and her marks and symptoms correlated

with pneumonia.

Tuberculosis ( TB )

Tuberculosis was discovered 100 old ages ago but still kills three million

people yearly ( Schlossberg, 1994, p.1 ) . Cases range from race and ethnicity.

In 1990 the non-Hispanic Blacks had 9, 634 instances while the American Indians and

Alaskan Natives had 371 instances ( Galantino and Bishop, 1994 ) . It is caused by

bacteriums called either Mycobacterium TB or Tubercle B.

Tuberculosis can infect any portion of the organic structure but is most frequently found in the

lungs where it causes a lung infection or pneumonia.

Etiology

There has been a revival of TB due to a figure of factors that include:

1. the HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2. the increased figure of immigrants, 3. the

addition in poorness, injection drug usage and homelessness, 4. hapless conformity

with intervention regiments and ; 5. the increased figure of occupants in long term

installations ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) .

The TB bacterium is spread through the air nevertheless transmittal will

merely occur after drawn-out exposure. For illustration you merely have a 50 % opportunity to

become septic if you spend eight hours a twenty-four hours for six months with person who

has active TB ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) .

The TB bacterium enters the air when a TB patient coughs,

sneezings or negotiations and is so inhaled. The infection can lie hibernating in a

individual & # 8217 ; s system for old ages doing them no jobs nevertheless when their immune

system is weakened it gives the infection a opportunity to interrupt free.

Types of Terbium Treatments

Types of intervention will depend on whether the patient has inactive or

active TB. To name active TB the physician will look at the patients & # 8217 ;

symptoms, and results of the skin trial, phlegm trials, and chest X raies. A

individual has active TB when their immune system is weakened and they

start to exhibit the marks and symptoms of the disease. They besides have positive

tegument trials, phlegm trials and chest X raies. When this occurs the intervention is

more intense. The disease is treated with at least two different types of

antibiotics in order to bring around the infection. Within a few hebdomads the antibiotics

will construct the organic structure & # 8217 ; s opposition and decelerate the toxicants of the TB source to forestall

the patient from being contagious. An illustration of intervention would be short-

class chemotherapy, which is the usage of INH ( INH ) , Rifadin, and

pyrazinamide in combination for at least six months ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) . The

drugs need to be taken for six to twelve months or there may be a reoccurrence.

Failure to take the antibiotics systematically will ensue in a multi-drug

immune TB ( MDR TB ) which & # 8220 ; is much harder to handle because the drugs do non

kill the sources. MDR TB can be spread to others, merely like regular TB & # 8221 ; ( American

Lung Association, 1996 ) .

Inactive TB is when a individual is infected with the TB

bacteriums, but their immune system is able to contend the infection, hence merely

demoing a positive tegument trial and a negative X ray and sputum trial. The patient

may be infected but they are non contagious which means the physician will get down a

preventive intervention plan. This plan includes the usage of the drug

INH for six to twelve months to forestall the Terbium from going active in the

hereafter.

Once the intervention for Joan & # 8217 ; s pneumonia was unsuccessful it was

rediagnosed because she remembered her exposure to TB when her gramps

contracted it when she was seven old ages old. She has been incognizant that she has

been caring the infection in a hibernating province for 28 old ages. Due to her sore

pharynx, which weakened her immune system, her TB became active therefore she was

given a new intervention program. This program included the usage of INH, Rifadin,

and pyrazinamide.

Objective and Subjective Indexs

Tuberculosis and pneumonia have similar aim and subjective

indexs because they both cause infection of the lungs. Because of theses

similarities in the indexs Joan & # 8217 ; s instance was easy misdiagnosed without the

information of the TB exposure.

The subjective indexs are chest hurting, concerns, loss of appetency,

sickness, stiffness of articulations or musculuss, shortness of breath, fatigue and

failing. The patient has to be able to state the physician these symptoms in order

for the correct diagn

osis to be made because of the convergence between the two

diseases.

The nonsubjective indexs include coughing, icinesss, fever, dark workout suits

and blood-streaked or chocolate-brown phlegm. These marks will be discernible by the

physician.

Medical Interventions

The diagnostic processs for pneumonia and TB is besides similar.

The usual process is for the physician to acquire a old medical history along

with a history of possible exposure and oncoming of symptoms. From there a

physical scrutiny will happen. The physician will listen to the patients chest

for cracklings. After that, trials such as the CBC blood trial, X raies, blood and

sputum trial, biopsy or a bronchoscopy can corroborate an infection of the lungs. A

TB specific trial is the Mantoux trial which is a skin trial that

confirms the presence of the TB bacterium in the patients system.

A conservative intervention would include antibiotics such as penicillin

and INH ( INH ) that would handle the infection in the lungs. Or

bronchodilators may be used to assist maintain the air passages open. Other interventions may

include a proper diet or bed remainder.

There are non many picks when it come to surgical direction for

pneumonia or TB. In fact there is normally merely 1 that is frequently used.

That surgery is thoracocentesis and it is used to take the pleural gush

from the lungs.

The Course

The class of pneumonia and TB can change from individual to individual.

In general the class begins with the development of symptoms and the visit to

the physician. After the visit to the physician trials and scrutinies will happen to

corroborate the presence of pneumonia or TB. Once the infection has been

confirmed medicine may be prescribed along with possible bed remainder. A prompt

recovery can happen if:

1. they are immature, 2. their immune system is working good, 3. the disease is

caught early and ; 4. they are non enduring from other unwellnesss.

Most patients will be able to react to the interventions and get down to better

within a twosome of hebdomads.

Throughout the intervention medical rating, drug monitoring and

bacteriology is completed. They will look into the phlegm twice monthly for Terbium

until the vilification is negative and the patient is symptomless which normally occurs

within the first three months ( Galantino and Bishop, 1994 ) . For both diseases

they will besides watch the patient for drug side effects, opposition and

conformity.

In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance the TB infection was caught excessively late to utilize preventative

interventions but one time it turned active it was discovered after two hebdomads.

Bio-Psycho-Social Effectss

There are many secondary biological effects from pneumonia and

TB. Tuberculosis and Bacterial Pneumonia can come in the organic structure & # 8217 ; s blood

steam and cause harm or farther infection to any portion of the organic structure, which

includes the kidney, articulations, castanetss, liver, encephalon, generative variety meats or urinary

piece of land. Other secondary jobs that may originate from either disease include

anaemia, pleurisy, lung abscess, pneumonic hydrops, chronic interstitial pneumonia,

acute respiratory failure, empyema, decelerating of the bowels or hyponatremia

which is low blood Na ( National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory

Medicine, 1989 ) .

The patient may besides endure from psychological and societal jobs

throughout the class of the disease. In utmost instances patients may be unable

to take part in physical, recreational, or normal twenty-four hours activities which may

cause societal want or depression. However most patients can anticipate to

maintain their occupations, stay with their households throughout the intervention and lead

normal lives.

In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance she was hospitalized so had become socially disadvantaged and

was going really down. This is in portion due to the fact the her intervention

was uneffective for the first three yearss from the misdiagnoses.

Goals and Interventions for the Pneumonia or Tuberculosis Patient

To ease the recovery of patients who have pneumonia or TB there

will be intercessions from the Physical Therapist, Respiratory Therapist and

Social Worker. Each profession will hold functions in motivation, back uping and

increasing the functional capableness of the patient. The most common aims

of intervention include:

1. to diminish uncomfortableness, 2. to ease the exchange of O and C

dioxide in the lungs, 3. to forestall wasting from the increased bed remainder, and 4.

to forestall societal backdown.

Rehabilitation Goals and Interventions

1. Maintain or increase musculus strength during reduced activity

-provide a progressive resistive exercising plan

-promote weight bearing activities, engage in recreational

activities and self attention activities

2. Maintain or increase mobility of soft tissue and articulations during bed remainder and

decreased degree of activity?

& # 8211 ; supply inactive and active scope of gesture

-recreational activities uniting aerobic, stretching, and

beef uping

3. Develop, better, reconstruct or keep coordination

& # 8211 ; pattern accomplishments with walking, dressing, hygiene and standing

4. Promote psych-social version to disablement and prevent societal backdown

& # 8211 ; educate to accommodate life style

& # 8211 ; acquire involved in support groups and societal interactions

& # 8211 ; organic structure places that decrease uncomfortableness

& # 8211 ; Social Worker may assist here

5. Relief of thorax hurting and assistance in respiration

& # 8211 ; utilize chest physio, O interventions and respiratoy therapy?

& # 8211 ; learn effectual external respiration techniques and postural drainage to

maintain air passages open

6.Prevention of reoccurrence

& # 8211 ; preventative therapy that includes instruction on proper diet

Joan was referred to see a Physical Therapist, Respiratory Therapist and

Social Worker. Her ends where to diminish her uncomfortableness, instruction to accommodate

her life style and in different organic structure places that will advance easier external respiration.

The Social Worker was besides at that place to promote her to fall in a support group to

aid her header with the restraints from her disease.

Every twelvemonth 1000000s of people throughout the universe are affected by the

pneumonia and TB disease. These two respiratory infections have

similarities and differences. These similarities stem from the fact that both

diseases attack a individuals lungs doing redness and consolidation. In fact

TB is a chronic infection that can impact the lungs and cause

pneumonia. Since both infections cause consolidation indexs like coughing,

thorax hurting and shortness of breath are found in pneumonia and TB. The

job with these similarities, as was seen in Joan & # 8217 ; s instance, is that it can be

easy misdiagnosed when the proper trials are non used. The differences in the

two infections are chiefly merely in their etiologies. For pneumonia there are

over 30 different causes but the four chief classs are bacterial, viral,

mycoplasma and fungal while TB is merely caused by a bacterium called

Tubercle B. Fortunately pneumonia and TB can be kept under

control with the usage of antibiotics and the earlier that the infection is caught

the better opportunity of a prompt recovery.

Mentions

American Lung Association. ( 1996 ) . Pneumonia [ Online ] . Available Uniform resource locator:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lungusa.org/noframes/learn/lung/lunpneumonia.html

American Lung Association. ( 1996 ) Tuberculosis [ Online ] . Available Uniform resource locator:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lungusa.org/noframes/learn/lung/luntb.html

Cook, Allan R. , & A ; Dresser, Peter D. ( Ed. ) . ( 1995 ) . Respiratory diseases and

upsets sourcebook ( 6 ) . Detroit: Omnigraphics Inc.

Galantino, Mary Lou. , & A ; Bishop, Kathy Lee. ( 1994, February ) . The new TB. Platinum

Magazine. P. 53-61

MedicineNet. ( 1997 ) . Diseases & A ; interventions: pneumonia [ Online ] . Available

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.medicinenet.com/mainmenu/encyclop/ARTICLE/Art_P/pneumon.htm

National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. ( 1989 ) . Master of education

Facts Pneumonia [ Online ] . Available Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hjc.org/MFhtml/PNE_MF.html

O & # 8217 ; Toole, M. ( Ed. ) . ( 1992 ) . Miller-Keane encyclopaedia and lexicon of

medical specialty, nursing, and allied wellness. Toronto: W.B. Saunders.

Schlossberg, David. ( Ed. ) . ( 1994 ) . Tuberculosis ( 3rd ed. ) . New York:

Springer & # 8211 ; Verlag.

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