Tuberculosis Essay, Research Paper
The Differences and Similarities of Pneumonia and Tuberculosis
Pneumonia and TB have been blighting the citizens of the universe
for centuries doing 1000000s of deceases. This occurred until the creative activity and
usage of antibiotics become more widely available. These two respiratory
infections have many differences, which include their etiology, incidence and
prevalence, and many similarities in their nonsubjective and capable indexs,
medical intercessions, class, rehabilitation and effects.
To research the relationship between pneumonia and TB we will
analyze a instance survey. Joan is a 35 twelvemonth old adult females who was experiencing all right up boulder clay
a few hebdomads ago when she develop a sore pharynx. Since her sore pharynx she had
been sing thorax hurting, a loss of appetency, coughing and a low febrility so
she went to see her physician. Her physician admitted her to the infirmary with
bacterial pneumonia and after three yearss of unsuccessful intervention it was
discovered that she really had active TB. This misdiagnosis shows
the similarities between the two diseases and how easy they can be confused.
Pneumonia is a serious infection or redness of the lungs with
exudate and consolidation. Pneumonia can be one of two types: lobar pneumonia
or bronchial pneumonia. Lobar pneumonia affects one lobe of a lung while
bronchial pneumonia affects the countries closest to the bronchial tube ( O & # 8217 ; Toole, 1992 ) .
In the United States over three million people are infected with pneumonia each
twelvemonth ; five per centum of which dice.
There are over 30 causes for pneumonia nevertheless there are 4 chief causes
which are bacterial, viral, mycoplasma and fungous ( American Lung Association,
1996 ) . Bacterial pneumonia onslaughts everyone from immature to old, nevertheless
& # 8220 ; alkies, the debilitated, post-operative patients, people with respiratory
disease or viral infections and people who have weakened immune systems are at
greater hazard & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) . The Pneumococcusis bacterium,
which is classified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, causes bacterial pneumonia and
can be prevented by a vaccinum. In 20 & # 8211 ; 30 % of the instances the infection spreads
to the blood watercourse ( MedicineNet, 1997 ) which can take to secondary infections.
Viral pneumonia histories for half of all pneumonia instances ( American Lung
Association, 1996 ) unluckily there is no effectual intervention because
antibiotics do non impact viruses. Many viral pneumonia instances are a consequence of
an influenza infection and normally affect kids, nevertheless they are non
normally serious and last merely a short clip ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .
The & # 8220 ; virus invades the lungs and multiplies, but there are about no physical
marks of lung tissue going filled with fluid. It finds many of its victims
among those who have preexistent bosom or lung disease or are pregnant & # 8221 ;
( American Lung Association, 1996 ) . In the more terrible instances it can be
complicated with the invasion of bacteriums that may ensue in symptoms of
bacterial pneumonia ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .
During World War II mycoplasma were identified as the & # 8220 ; smallest free-
populating agents of disease in world, unclassified as to whether bacteriums or
viruses, but holding features of both & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .
Mycoplasma pneumonia is & # 8220 ; frequently a easy developing infection & # 8221 ; ( MedicineNet,
1997 ) that frequently affects older kids and immature grownups ( American Lung
Association, 1996 ) .
The other chief cause of pneumonia is fungous pneumonia. This is caused
by a fungus that causes pneumocystic carinii pneumonia ( PCP ) and is frequently & # 8220 ; the
foremost mark of unwellness in many individuals with AIDS and? can be successfully
treated in many instances & # 8221 ; ( American Lung Association, 1996 ) .
In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance bacterial pneumonia was suspected because her immune
system was weakened by her sore pharynx and her marks and symptoms correlated
Tuberculosis ( TB )
Tuberculosis was discovered 100 old ages ago but still kills three million
people yearly ( Schlossberg, 1994, p.1 ) . Cases range from race and ethnicity.
In 1990 the non-Hispanic Blacks had 9, 634 instances while the American Indians and
Alaskan Natives had 371 instances ( Galantino and Bishop, 1994 ) . It is caused by
bacteriums called either Mycobacterium TB or Tubercle B.
Tuberculosis can infect any portion of the organic structure but is most frequently found in the
lungs where it causes a lung infection or pneumonia.
There has been a revival of TB due to a figure of factors that include:
1. the HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2. the increased figure of immigrants, 3. the
addition in poorness, injection drug usage and homelessness, 4. hapless conformity
with intervention regiments and ; 5. the increased figure of occupants in long term
installations ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) .
The TB bacterium is spread through the air nevertheless transmittal will
merely occur after drawn-out exposure. For illustration you merely have a 50 % opportunity to
become septic if you spend eight hours a twenty-four hours for six months with person who
has active TB ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) .
The TB bacterium enters the air when a TB patient coughs,
sneezings or negotiations and is so inhaled. The infection can lie hibernating in a
individual & # 8217 ; s system for old ages doing them no jobs nevertheless when their immune
system is weakened it gives the infection a opportunity to interrupt free.
Types of Terbium Treatments
Types of intervention will depend on whether the patient has inactive or
active TB. To name active TB the physician will look at the patients & # 8217 ;
symptoms, and results of the skin trial, phlegm trials, and chest X raies. A
individual has active TB when their immune system is weakened and they
start to exhibit the marks and symptoms of the disease. They besides have positive
tegument trials, phlegm trials and chest X raies. When this occurs the intervention is
more intense. The disease is treated with at least two different types of
antibiotics in order to bring around the infection. Within a few hebdomads the antibiotics
will construct the organic structure & # 8217 ; s opposition and decelerate the toxicants of the TB source to forestall
the patient from being contagious. An illustration of intervention would be short-
class chemotherapy, which is the usage of INH ( INH ) , Rifadin, and
pyrazinamide in combination for at least six months ( Cook & A ; Dresser, 1995 ) . The
drugs need to be taken for six to twelve months or there may be a reoccurrence.
Failure to take the antibiotics systematically will ensue in a multi-drug
immune TB ( MDR TB ) which & # 8220 ; is much harder to handle because the drugs do non
kill the sources. MDR TB can be spread to others, merely like regular TB & # 8221 ; ( American
Lung Association, 1996 ) .
Inactive TB is when a individual is infected with the TB
bacteriums, but their immune system is able to contend the infection, hence merely
demoing a positive tegument trial and a negative X ray and sputum trial. The patient
may be infected but they are non contagious which means the physician will get down a
preventive intervention plan. This plan includes the usage of the drug
INH for six to twelve months to forestall the Terbium from going active in the
Once the intervention for Joan & # 8217 ; s pneumonia was unsuccessful it was
rediagnosed because she remembered her exposure to TB when her gramps
contracted it when she was seven old ages old. She has been incognizant that she has
been caring the infection in a hibernating province for 28 old ages. Due to her sore
pharynx, which weakened her immune system, her TB became active therefore she was
given a new intervention program. This program included the usage of INH, Rifadin,
Objective and Subjective Indexs
Tuberculosis and pneumonia have similar aim and subjective
indexs because they both cause infection of the lungs. Because of theses
similarities in the indexs Joan & # 8217 ; s instance was easy misdiagnosed without the
information of the TB exposure.
The subjective indexs are chest hurting, concerns, loss of appetency,
sickness, stiffness of articulations or musculuss, shortness of breath, fatigue and
failing. The patient has to be able to state the physician these symptoms in order
for the correct diagn
osis to be made because of the convergence between the two
The nonsubjective indexs include coughing, icinesss, fever, dark workout suits
and blood-streaked or chocolate-brown phlegm. These marks will be discernible by the
The diagnostic processs for pneumonia and TB is besides similar.
The usual process is for the physician to acquire a old medical history along
with a history of possible exposure and oncoming of symptoms. From there a
physical scrutiny will happen. The physician will listen to the patients chest
for cracklings. After that, trials such as the CBC blood trial, X raies, blood and
sputum trial, biopsy or a bronchoscopy can corroborate an infection of the lungs. A
TB specific trial is the Mantoux trial which is a skin trial that
confirms the presence of the TB bacterium in the patients system.
A conservative intervention would include antibiotics such as penicillin
and INH ( INH ) that would handle the infection in the lungs. Or
bronchodilators may be used to assist maintain the air passages open. Other interventions may
include a proper diet or bed remainder.
There are non many picks when it come to surgical direction for
pneumonia or TB. In fact there is normally merely 1 that is frequently used.
That surgery is thoracocentesis and it is used to take the pleural gush
from the lungs.
The class of pneumonia and TB can change from individual to individual.
In general the class begins with the development of symptoms and the visit to
the physician. After the visit to the physician trials and scrutinies will happen to
corroborate the presence of pneumonia or TB. Once the infection has been
confirmed medicine may be prescribed along with possible bed remainder. A prompt
recovery can happen if:
1. they are immature, 2. their immune system is working good, 3. the disease is
caught early and ; 4. they are non enduring from other unwellnesss.
Most patients will be able to react to the interventions and get down to better
within a twosome of hebdomads.
Throughout the intervention medical rating, drug monitoring and
bacteriology is completed. They will look into the phlegm twice monthly for Terbium
until the vilification is negative and the patient is symptomless which normally occurs
within the first three months ( Galantino and Bishop, 1994 ) . For both diseases
they will besides watch the patient for drug side effects, opposition and
In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance the TB infection was caught excessively late to utilize preventative
interventions but one time it turned active it was discovered after two hebdomads.
There are many secondary biological effects from pneumonia and
TB. Tuberculosis and Bacterial Pneumonia can come in the organic structure & # 8217 ; s blood
steam and cause harm or farther infection to any portion of the organic structure, which
includes the kidney, articulations, castanetss, liver, encephalon, generative variety meats or urinary
piece of land. Other secondary jobs that may originate from either disease include
anaemia, pleurisy, lung abscess, pneumonic hydrops, chronic interstitial pneumonia,
acute respiratory failure, empyema, decelerating of the bowels or hyponatremia
which is low blood Na ( National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory
Medicine, 1989 ) .
The patient may besides endure from psychological and societal jobs
throughout the class of the disease. In utmost instances patients may be unable
to take part in physical, recreational, or normal twenty-four hours activities which may
cause societal want or depression. However most patients can anticipate to
maintain their occupations, stay with their households throughout the intervention and lead
In Joan & # 8217 ; s instance she was hospitalized so had become socially disadvantaged and
was going really down. This is in portion due to the fact the her intervention
was uneffective for the first three yearss from the misdiagnoses.
Goals and Interventions for the Pneumonia or Tuberculosis Patient
To ease the recovery of patients who have pneumonia or TB there
will be intercessions from the Physical Therapist, Respiratory Therapist and
Social Worker. Each profession will hold functions in motivation, back uping and
increasing the functional capableness of the patient. The most common aims
of intervention include:
1. to diminish uncomfortableness, 2. to ease the exchange of O and C
dioxide in the lungs, 3. to forestall wasting from the increased bed remainder, and 4.
to forestall societal backdown.
Rehabilitation Goals and Interventions
1. Maintain or increase musculus strength during reduced activity
-provide a progressive resistive exercising plan
-promote weight bearing activities, engage in recreational
activities and self attention activities
2. Maintain or increase mobility of soft tissue and articulations during bed remainder and
decreased degree of activity?
& # 8211 ; supply inactive and active scope of gesture
-recreational activities uniting aerobic, stretching, and
3. Develop, better, reconstruct or keep coordination
& # 8211 ; pattern accomplishments with walking, dressing, hygiene and standing
4. Promote psych-social version to disablement and prevent societal backdown
& # 8211 ; educate to accommodate life style
& # 8211 ; acquire involved in support groups and societal interactions
& # 8211 ; organic structure places that decrease uncomfortableness
& # 8211 ; Social Worker may assist here
5. Relief of thorax hurting and assistance in respiration
& # 8211 ; utilize chest physio, O interventions and respiratoy therapy?
& # 8211 ; learn effectual external respiration techniques and postural drainage to
maintain air passages open
6.Prevention of reoccurrence
& # 8211 ; preventative therapy that includes instruction on proper diet
Joan was referred to see a Physical Therapist, Respiratory Therapist and
Social Worker. Her ends where to diminish her uncomfortableness, instruction to accommodate
her life style and in different organic structure places that will advance easier external respiration.
The Social Worker was besides at that place to promote her to fall in a support group to
aid her header with the restraints from her disease.
Every twelvemonth 1000000s of people throughout the universe are affected by the
pneumonia and TB disease. These two respiratory infections have
similarities and differences. These similarities stem from the fact that both
diseases attack a individuals lungs doing redness and consolidation. In fact
TB is a chronic infection that can impact the lungs and cause
pneumonia. Since both infections cause consolidation indexs like coughing,
thorax hurting and shortness of breath are found in pneumonia and TB. The
job with these similarities, as was seen in Joan & # 8217 ; s instance, is that it can be
easy misdiagnosed when the proper trials are non used. The differences in the
two infections are chiefly merely in their etiologies. For pneumonia there are
over 30 different causes but the four chief classs are bacterial, viral,
mycoplasma and fungal while TB is merely caused by a bacterium called
Tubercle B. Fortunately pneumonia and TB can be kept under
control with the usage of antibiotics and the earlier that the infection is caught
the better opportunity of a prompt recovery.
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