Landscape heritage of the Rumanian Carpathians is emphasized through protection activities, but in the same clip it represents an of import pool of resources suited to the legion signifiers of touristry. Conservation is in line with sustainable touristry and its options, ecotourism. The present survey aimed on analyzes several characteristics of the Carpathian protected heritage and how activities function through environmentally friendly touristry. Consequences showed a great diverseness of apprehension and execution of ecotourism in the Carpathian Mountains, with legion actions of organisation, but besides with a series of steps that are perfectly necessary for the proper operation of this touristry option. The survey provides several theoretical accounts to gauge some features of ecotourism resources, which provide returns for consumer satisfaction every bit good as better the direction of protected countries.

The ecotourism was developed on the touristry market in ’80s “ within the uterus of environmental motion ” , ( Honey, 1999 ) and in about 30 old ages is the fastest turning section of the planetary touristry industry ( Gibson & A ; Dodds, 2003 ; West & A ; Carrier, 2004 ) , going progressively more of import in the touristry industry, ( Chafe, 2005 ) . Although, it is defined and promoted in a great diverseness depending of the conditions and positions of each state, the footing remain as being “ responsible travel to natural countries that conserves the environment and sustains the wellbeing of local people ” , ( TIES, 1999 ; Taylor & A ; Dyer, 2003, Valentine, 1992, Cater, 1995 ) , a type of touristry where the environment, local community and visitant all benefit. Like touristry, ecotourism produces extended benefits. Its ends are to assist the environment by saving of natural resources, assist the local communities to keep their cultural characteristics and later their economic systems. Even in pattern, the term ‘ecotourism ‘ is frequently used by circuit operators as a selling tool to advance any signifier of touristry that is related to nature, ( Wight, 1994 ) , the money from ecotourism could be reinvested in environmental protection and growing the entree of local people both in occupations creative activity and to civilisation. In many states, ecotourism means a travel chiefly to natural finishs, particularly in distant countries which are under environmental protection at the international, national, regional or private degree, ( Honey, 2008 ) , in others, cultural-human resources are included. In all instances, being a responsible travel it minimizes impacts to the country by different actions/activities get downing with the recycling stuffs, development of renewable beginnings of energy, safe disposal of waste, maintaining traditional architectural design, edifice consciousness for environment and the particular direction of tourers and leisure activities etc.

In Romania, the ecotourism was/is portion of rural and agri-tourism and since 2000 is an emergent activity related to the protected countries. In this position the survey aims to analyse several characteristics of protected countries like eco-destinations, the ecotourism activities profiles in order to measure the support for public or travel companies ‘ plans.

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The hypothesis of the paper starts from the thought that one time the constitution of protected countries in the Carpathian Mountains, signifiers of touristry and tourer finishs signifiers of touristry and tourer finishs have diversified. In these fortunes, is the ecotourism decently developed as illustrations of good pattern from world-wide?

The survey aims to reply some inquiries:

1.What is the ecotourism background statute law in the Carpathian Mountains?

2.Which features of tourer bundles might be improved?

3.What actions have been developed for the execution of ecotourism?

4. What steps are needed to harmonise protection with ecotourism development?

2.Methods and informations

The survey starts at the completion of related mentions on how to turn to the theoretical facets of ecotourism that has multiple definitions and application signifiers, followed by an overview about Carpathian protected countries set uping the chief legal issues that underpin the direction of protected countries seen as most suited entities for the pattern of ecotourism in Romania.

For scrutiny of the manner of harmonising them with economic activities, in this instance ecotourism, finishs were analyzed harmonizing to their possible seen by the grade of naturalness, diverseness of vegetations, zoologies and their exclusivity given by endemic species distributing.

The naturalness is calculated as per centum of forest covering of each country. The grade of vegetations and fauna diverseness and figure of endemic species, are estimated harmonizing to the undermentioned expression:

1 ) ( Gfd-Degree of flora diverseness, Ro=Romania, PN-National or natural park )

2 ) ( GFd-Degree of fauna diverseness, Ro=Romania, PN-national or natural park )

The presence of endemic species included in the “ ruddy list ” of Romania is non calculated since there is non yet unitary committedness upon the issues, illustrations are in rough Numberss.

The 3rd measure is to measure seasonality of ecotourism merchandises in order to assist construct visitants ‘ plans. Based on planned activities and travel services companies that have leased, the survey assesses the ability to incorporate ecotourism on a big graduated table and provides illustrations of necessary steps for ecotourism bundles on the touristry market.

Processed informations in the survey come from the Ministry of Territorial Development and Tourism, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and bibliography.

3.Carpathian protected countries

Romania ‘s natural and human heritage represent a resource pool for a series of activities with the stipulation of maintaining its content as goods ( stuff or spiritual ) which belong to the community and are managed by province organic structures. One such activity is ecotourism targeted as an option of the sustainable touristry. The most suited for ecotourism are protected countries, given their constituents ‘ diverseness but besides because particularly harmonisation of policy execution of nature preservation or landscape ensuing from the mutualism of nature and society with the ecotourism activities. Resources used in the direction of legal conformity are:

-Areas of national involvement, including National Parks, natural Parkss, scientific militias, wildlife, monumental nature ( Government Emergency Ordinance no. 57/2007 ) ;

– International involvement countries ( biosphere militias, wetlands of international importance, natural sites of cosmopolitan natural heritage, geo-parks ) ;

– Communitarian involvement countries ( Natura 2000 web: Particular Areas of Conservation, Special Bird Protection Areas, sites of Community importance ) .

In Romania, the protected natural countries of national involvement, reported the state ‘s surface is 7 % .Carpathian Mountains have the most legion protected countries of Romania. Of the 14 natural Parkss, nine are in mountain country and of the 13 national Parkss, 12 are owned by the mountains. Entire protected country in the Carpathian is 861,888 hour angle which signify 13 % from the Carpathian surface ( Table 1, 2 ) .

Table 1. Rumanian Carpathian National Parks

National park

Area ( hour angle )




Rodna Mountains NP





CA?limani NP



Vatra Dornei


Bicazului-HA?AYmaAY Gorge NP



Izvorul MureAYului


Piatra Craiului NP





Buila VanturariA?a NP





Jiului Gorge NP



Tg Jiu


Retezat NP





Domogled-Cerna Valley NP



BA?ile Herculane


Semenic- CaraAYului Gorge NP





Nerei-BeuAYniA?a Gorge NP





CeahlA?u NP


National trust

Piatra NeamA?


Cozia NP





Processed after Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development informations

Table 2. Rumanian Carpathian Natural Parks

Natural park

Area ( hour angle )




MaramureAY Mountains NP



ViAYeul de Sus, Baia Mare


VanA?tori-NeamA? NP


National trust



Bucegi Natural Park





Putna Vrancea NP





GrA?diAYtea Muncelului-Cioclovina NP





PorA?ile de Fier NP





Superior Mures Gorge





Apuseni Natural Park





Dinosaurus A?ara HaA?egului Geopark[ 1 ]



General Berthelot


Processed after Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development informations

The legislative footing of puting up of protected countries in Romania dates back since 1935. Merely after 60 old ages the conditions necessary for saving of big countries have created. Therefore, the natural countries of national involvement are declared under Law no. 5 / 2000 on National Planning, Section III, protected countries ; the Government Decision 2151/2004 sing the creative activity of the protected natural country for new countries, the Government Decision no. 1581/2005 sing the creative activity of the protected natural country for new countries, and Government Decision no. 1143/2007 refering the constitution of new protected countries.

Harmonizing to the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development Order no. 1533/2008, the direction of protected natural countries may be awarded detention or may hold their ain direction constructions.

For guaranting a strong protection in Romania was created Nature 2000 European Ecological Network, which offers many utile tools in the way of landscape and biodiversity preservation. Nature 2000 is a construction that both guarantee preservation and development of Romania ‘s biodiversity, and their usage in sustainable touristry activities and in agribusiness. Romania has 273 Sites of Community Importance and 108 sites of Particular Protection Bird declared by Ministerial Order no. 1964/2007 set uping a system of protected natural country sites of Community importance, as portion of the European ecological web Nature 2000. The entire country of Nature 2000 in Romania represents 17.84 % of the state. SCI ( Sites of Community Importance ) with 13.21 % of the state and SPAs ( Particular Protection Areas ) are 11, 89 % of the state, ( Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development ) .

4.Ecotourism-facts, figures and demands

As IUCN categorization, a national park ( II class ) allows several activities being focused on protected country managed, in peculiar to protect ecosystems and to supply recreational characteristics. In fact, it is designated to protect the ecological unity of one or more ecosystems for present and future coevalss, to except development or business which is contrary to their designated country and to supply chances footing for scientific, educational, recreational and visitants activities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible, ( IUCN ) .

Natural Parkss are found in the IUCN class V, which protect country, manage landscapes in peculiar land / Marine and diversion. In fact, a natural park is an country that protects the landscape created over clip through interaction between people and nature with a important aesthetic, ecological and / or cultural value and frequently with high biological diverseness, ( IUCN ) .

The economic direction of two types of protected countries included touristry organisation manner, saving of local traditions and civilization, advancing instruction and environmental consciousness, back uping the local cultural heritage and local community and its economic system.

To guarantee carnival for both preservation and economic usage of natural and national Parkss have a rigorous zoning that includes:

-conservation zone

-wildlife country / direction country without intervention research activities are allowed

– Intensifier usage country

– Intensive usage enclaves or corridors visitants with several bounds

– Enclaves and development corridors

– Baffler countries

– Passage zone / Sustainable Development

( Management next country ) sustainable development

-Cultural zones

-Ecological zones

Harmonizing to zoning and the proper range of protected countries the ecotourism, by its economic usage, has no contradictions between the economic involvements of the population who could profit from the economic potency of natural ecosystems and preservation involvements.

Conservation itself generates costs, and ecotourism can bring forth income through profit-sharing agreements and achieve ends with effectual protection. Ecotourism is an alternate to the usage of protected countries, being an option to classical development through agribusiness, forestry etc. Practicing this signifier of travel ensures proper recovery of the touristry resources, while keeping their ecological unity, ( Bran et al. , 2000 ) .

The direction of protected countries for ecotourism activities should be a harmoniousness between techniques for visitants ‘ direction and resource disposal. In this regard, there are many methods of note: recreational chance spectrum ( ROS ) , Visitor Activity Management Process ( VAMP ) , Visitor Impact Management ( VIM ) , Limits of Acceptable Change ( LAC ) and techniques: restricting the figure of visitants, the scattering tourers, tourer concentration, restricting seasonal and zoning, instruction before or during park visiting, information prior or during activities, transportation of tourers services etc.

Recreational chance spectrum ( ROS ) refers to the quality given by nature ; societal quality and conditions given by direction ( Smaranda, 2008 ) .

For constructing a tourer bundles is really of import to analyze ROS through the attraction of protected countries which depends on many factors. One of them is given by the grade of naturalness, forestation. National Parkss have a high grade of naturalness, its value runing from 49 % ( Retezat NP ) and 94.9 % ( Ceahlau NP ) . The grade of naturalness of natural Parkss is between 57 % ( Maramures NP ) and 86 % ( Putna Vrancea NP ) . Furthermore, these Parkss have big countries of alpine grazing lands that enhance natural diverseness. The forest coverage attracts tourer and allows a specific figure of visitants, harmonizing to species breakability and their carrying capacity, ( Table 3 ) .

In the same class are included the grade of vegetations and fauna diverseness and the figure of endemic species, calculated harmonizing to up formulas. Admiration of zoology and vegetation is an ecotourism activity which allows tourers to watch ( landscape ‘s therapy ) , take exposures or survey. Statistically, the grade of flora diverseness is 0.35 in Rodna, 0.37 in Piatra Craiului, and over 50 in Portile de Fier Natural Park.

Fauna diverseness given by mammals ‘ figure is 0.45 in Ceahlau and 0.55 in Retezat. For birdwaching, the diverseness is about half species of the Romania ‘s entire ( Retezat 0.50 ; 0.35 in Bucegi or 0.30 in Piatra Craiului ) .

The grade of endemic species diverseness is expressed by the entire figure of species included in literature and statute law. Therefore, Bucegi Natural Park hosts 27 endemic “ difficult taxons ” , which means 36 % from Romania ‘s entire. Piatra Craiului National Park hosts 181 of rare species written in “ the ruddy list ” . In the same clip the undermentioned species, protected by jurisprudence are great attractive forces for ecotourism in about all protected countries: Taxus baccata, Gentiana lutea, Larix deciduas, Rhododendron kotshyl-Simk, Daphne blagayana disturbance, Salyx myrtelloydes, Leontopodium alpinum, Angelica archangelica, Trollius europaeus, Dianthus callizonus, Rupricapra rupricapra, Tetraos urogalus, Linx linx, Gyps fulvus, Aquila chrysaetosus chrysaetosus, etc. With a such potency, all protected countries represent new attractive finishs exploited through ecotourism.

Because touristry is affected by seasonality, a sustainable manner to decrease it and to guarantee, in the same clip, protection is really suited to cognize and advance the seasonal characteristics of resources, covering all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. In their great diverseness, flora and zoologies are really delicate comparing with H2O or geosites. Knowing ordinance, resources exposure, any park can make plans sing ecosystems ‘ handiness. If a extremum, or waterfalls, lakes can, theoretically, be visited in any seasons, for flowers the suited period for esteem is their bally period and in instance of zoology is excluded those month when animate beings are in danger to be disturbed in their natural generative procedures ( fig.1. ) .

The landscapes, seen by geomorphologycal and hydrological heritage, are seemingly more resistive and available. Cultural resources, traditions can be included in all bundles except those scheduled events which particularise the offers. An rating of the resources handiness can heighten and give an image of what is sold or to be seen. Using this information it can be created seasonal periods of sing with elaborate plans, ( fig.1. ) .

By this simple manner, every park can make its ain plan of sing typing cusps with attractive forces and activities. Because of clime, species features, park direction should advance four periods of sing with two periods of shutting, such are february and november, when administrative steps are to be taken.













Traditional events/ natural resource

Parade on Bargaului Mts

Seep step

Heros twenty-four hours

Heros twenty-four hours

Whit Fair

Mountain Peony Festival

Fair cherries

Fair Baths

Monor yearss

Buck sheep

Daphne blagayana

Leontopodium alpinum

Rhododendron mytifolium

Taxus baccata

Salmo trutta fario

Rupicapra Rupicapra

Cervus elaphus

Ursus arctos

Lynx lynx

Tetra Urogallus

Tihu Waterfall

Iezerul Lake

Pietrosul Range

12 Apostles

Fig.1. Gantt diagram of some resources handiness in Calimani National Park

No available Available Available with particular steps

Out of the resources sing plans, the direction of these finishs comprises several actions. The entrywaies must be monitorised and good marked in the district by Gatess, where Texas Rangers can roll up the revenue enhancements from visitants, by agencies of conveyance. As many Gatess, as many troubles to guarantee with park staff the entrywaies ( eg. Rodna NP with 16 points of entrywaies ) . Once the tourers entree to trails, they must be accompanied by ushers. A series of paths require attach toing big staff, a elaborate cognition of the attractive forces, but besides the increasing of hazard force per unit area on trails. Therefore, Bucegi park has approximately 280 paths, being exposed to uncontrolled touristry more than Jiului Gorge with merely one path ( Table 3 ) .

Activities in many Parkss are likewise: research for scientific protected militias, walking and boosting. Few promote bird-watching or admire games militias. In several Parkss there were winter athleticss installations ( Busteni, Retezat, Semenic, Apuseni ) , mountain motorcycle, canoeing, canzoning, undermining, siting.

Like other Parkss from US, some Parkss have cessioned the touristry activities. Among 12 national Parkss, five cessioned the touristry and from nine natural Parkss five have private houses which operate inside them, ( Table 4 ) .

Among 24 companies which are runing in the Carpathian Parks, merely 6 have clear ecotourism bundles, with accurate specifications on activities, group size, routes petitions. Bucovina Adventure is the most complete illustration, four have merely general mentions, and the other trades with outgoing, even they are registered for ecotourism activities.

Table 3. The features of touristic activities in National Parks

National park

Tour operators

Forest %




Rodna Mountains




Research, boosting, walking, ecotourism

CA?limani Mountains

Bucovina Adventure




Riding, exposure, walking, Junior Texas Ranger cantonment

Bicazului-HA?AYmaAY Gorge

Fenyo Travel




Walking, scientific research, monitorised touristry

Piatra Craiului

Atu Travel and Events, Zoxi, Carpathian TOUR, AATEX, Turism ecologic




Walking, scientific research, monitorised touristry

Buila VanturariA?a




Scientific, traditional activities, environment friendly

Jiului Gorge




Canoeing, walking, boosting





Walking, boosting, ski, birdwaching, games militias, research

Domogled-Cerna Valley





Ecotourism, instruction walking

Semenic-CaraAYului Gorge

Woyage West, Tymes Globertrotter




Scientific, undermining, sSilvo-tourism, Hiking,

Nerei-BeuAYniA?a Gorge




Traditions research, boosting, walking, ecotourism




Traditions research, boosting, walking, ecotourism


Proturism Nedeea Valceana, Euro-Tour, Grantour, Extour




Traditions, ecotourism, instruction, walking

Processed after Ministry of Territorial Development and Tourism informations

Table 4. The features of touristic activities in Natural Parks

Natural park

Tour operators

Forest %




MaramureAY Mountains





Mocanita train, churches sing





Research, educational touristry







Mountain motorcycle, undermining, exposure, winter athleticss, walking, boosting

Putna Vrancea

MV Travel, ANTREC Vrancea




Walking, exposure

GrA?diAYtea Muncelului-Cioclovina




Caving, walking/ sheep manner

PorA?ile de Fier

Xplorer-Resita, Bibitour, BTT Turnu Severin




Cruise, birdwaching, fishering, walking, watermills, cultural

Superior Mures Gorge





Apuseni Experience

ASM Bihor, CIM Transilvania Tour, Discover nature, Green Mountain, Holiday, Outdoor 4 you




Ski, exposure, equitation,

mountain byking

walking, boosting

caving, Canis familiaris dashing, canyoning, rafting

Dinosaurus A?ara HaA?egului Geopark



Research, ecotourism, traditions, instruction, geo-tourism

Processed after Ministry of Territorial Development and Tourism informations

The flow of tourers was estimated at 1,651000 visitants, which signifies that 28.6 % of entire Romania reachings are interested in ecotourism merchandises. At the local degree, the tourer demand is still lower than the transporting capacity, except Bucegi with one million of visitants annually ( Fig.2 ) .

Adjustment is developed inside Parkss or outside them, totalising 1650 of units, composed chiefly of get oning houses, chalets and hotels.

Fig.2.The figure of visitants in national Parkss ( A ) and natural Parkss ( B )

Processed after Ministry of Territorial Development and Tourism informations

Although ecotourism is seen and organized largely in protected countries, mass touristry is still a danger and can compromise them. In this respect it should be noted that:

Park visiting by a licenses ‘ system should be generalized, in the same clip with a strict organisation of the entrywaies.

Walking inside countries should be achieved merely with a usher, who can monitorize all impacts or issues. Steering activity should besides connote local communities ‘ selected representatives.

Entering in groups up to 25 people to cut down the impact on dirt eroding. on mountain trails.

Making plans for the truth of the information on seasonal attractive forces, which help in making trade names for Parkss.

During some seasons it can name through partnerships, to educational establishments to form topographic points through volunteering pattern.

Appropriate organisation for bivouacing musca volitanss or restrained from cutting off the wood for firewood or aggregation of endemic vegetation species, generation of the field day hearths, supplying waste aggregation left behind bivouacing etc.

To form instruction undertakings for local people non merely of concern groups about the benefits that can be made through ecotourism. The perceptual experience that one time installed the system of protection, land is disabled, can keep a struggle between park direction and population. Involving local people should be in information and preparation to continue agro-pastoral and forestry traditions that do non change the bing heritage.

A point to be considered is the type of tourer merchandises. Example label through “ pan park ” ( Retezat ) is a success which must be extended to other protected countries. By harmonising the agro-tourism and ecotourism can travel on supplying local merchandises labeled as natural merchandises that may go accepted trade names, alternatively of trade readyings. The attempt made by the Association of Ecotourism in Romania since 2006, to certificate some merchandises ( pensions and bundles / Tours ) in the enfranchisement system “ Eco-Romania ” must be continued. Through such steps it creates occupations for local people to be included in activities and non exploited as inexpensive labour.


The consequences show a great potency for ecotourism development, due to puting up of protected countries that contain organized constructions for their disposal. Although they are immature, the direction of protected countries comprises ecotourism activities, but non to the full developed in the absence of a incorporate organisation for enfranchisement, guaranting right operation in order to cut down the mass touristry distributing that is enforceable against sustainable touristry. In this regard, it will necessitate to make mechanisms to enable coexistence the usage of sustainable economic with protection. Development of structural financess plans is perfectly the lone manner to measure up the staff from local communities to guarantee services for directing watercourses of tourers, look up toing, the development of athleticss, amusement, with a changeless monitoring procedure of the touristry phenomenon. Under current conditions, the Carpathian first-class potency is non efficaciously managed, as benefits to local people are returned chiefly to the adjustment proprietors and non adequate sums of fees are collected for reinvestment in preservation.

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