The enterpriser is in a concern of taking hazards. Any error or enterprise of taking these hazards would sabotage the chance of running a successful concern. The enterpriser has to presume the result originating from his/her hazard taking activities in footings of net income or loss while runing the concern. The hazard of running of concern despite both personal and fiscal loss is the basic implicit in subject that segregates enterprisers from non-entrepreneurs. It is besides of import in footings of our apprehension of the entrepreneurial procedure that every enterpriser has to travel through.
One of the of import maps of an enterpriser is to garner productive resources in an effort to supply merchandises or services so that in return they will acquire a sensible income. These resources include manpower, equipment and tools, money, clip and basic altogether stuffs which may imply some hazards during the procedure of transforming them into merchandises or services. Some illustrations of hazard associated to the transmutation procedure include the hazard for non acquiring the basic natural stuffs needed to bring forth the merchandise or possibly damage to the equipment and tools which could interpret into losingss to the enterpriser. These resources, along with its associated hazard, must be recognized and managed consequently in order to minimise losingss and to increase net incomes.
In the present survey, the research worker is acute to analyze the risk-taking leaning among the micro and little concern proprietors[ 1 ]in Malaysia. It is in the involvement of the research worker to cast some penetrations on the behavior of these micro enterprisers in footings of their consciousness and perceptual experience about hazard, their leaning to put on the line taking every bit good as their overall apprehension on hazard direction or extenuation. Leaning to put on the line pickings is by and large defined as the inclination of the single enterpriser to presume a certain degree of hazard associated with their concern operations peculiarly when doing concern determinations. The premise is that different persons might hold different hazard taking leanings ; some may be high hazard takers while some may be risk averse. It is envisaged that the research will be able to heighten our organic structure of cognition in footings of our understanding on the micro and little concern proprietors ‘ risk-taking leaning particularly within the context of different civilizations of Malaysia.
Micro, Small Medium Enterprises ( MSMEs[ 2 ]) in Malaysia accounted for 99.2 % of about 518,996 concerns that were registered in 2005 where about 80 % are categorised as micro-enterprises ( Baseline Census of Establishments and Enterprises, 2005 ) . Gray & A ; Gray ( 1989 ) noted that about 70 % of the grownup population aspire to be an enterpriser but did non prosecute their dreams due to a fright of failure, hazard or uncertainness. The findings from the present survey would be able to confirm the consequence of the above survey.
Harmonizing to Knowles & A ; White ( 1995 ) , enterprisers who started the concerns non merely make new occupations, generate wealth and supply fulfilling callings for themselves but they besides have to set about hazards most of the clip and it has become portion of their entrepreneurial life.
1.2 Problem Statement
The development of MSMEs has been high on the authorities docket since 1970 get downing with First Malaysia Plan until today. The New Economic Policy introduced in 1971 showed the earnestness of the authorities to repair the instabilities of economic wealth among races in Malaysia along with to eliminate poorness degree to the lower limit. Government committedness towards the development of MSMEs besides can be seen in the execution of Second Industrial Plan ( IMP2 ) and followed by IMP3 which will stop by 2020. All of these programs are authorities policies to increase the part of sectors under MSMEs particularly fabricating ( in the 8th Malaysia Plan ) and agribusiness ( in the 9th Malayan Plan ) aboard with other sectors, such the services sector. Census conducted in 2005, found that Malaysia ‘s MSMEs dominated by micro and little constitutions represent 79.4 % ( 412,000 company ) and 18.4 % severally. A moderate-sized constitution constitutes merely 2.2 per centum. Currently, MSMEs made up 99.2 per centum of concern in Malaysia compared to merely 88.3 % in the twelvemonth 2000. The statistics showed that non many MSMEs in the state graduated into going big corporations despite the increasing figure of MSMEs established each twelvemonth. What could be the grounds? This phenomenon is likely due to the low hazard taking leaning among MSME proprietors whereby they are afraid to spread out their concern due to the hazards and uncertainnesss they might confront if they become a larger corporation. Despite, the increasing Numberss of MSMEs from twelvemonth to twelvemonth, its part to the national economic system in footings of end product, added value and new cyberspace occupations is presumed to be dead if non decreasing.
In the United States, Small Business Association ( 1995 ) estimated that merely one in three concerns survive to their 5th day of remembrance and merely one in five brands it to their ten percent. The failure of the concern is thought to be related to the enterprisers ‘ failure to presume the right degree of hazards in runing the concern. Harmonizing to MacCrimmon and Wehrung ( 1990 ) , an entrepreneurial venture success has been connected to the hazard taking leaning of the enterpriser. The truth is that that little concern all over the universe has a success rate of less than 65 % ( Gray & A ; Gray, 1989 ) makes it all the critical to understand grounds behind this statement ; in peculiar those associated with risk-taking leaning and how it influences enterprisers ‘ determination devising. Therefore, it is of involvement to the research worker to find the degree of risk-taking leaning among micro, little and average endeavors ( MSMEs ) enterprisers in Malaysia.
1.3 Research Questions
This survey attempts to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
Are there any differences in the hazard taking leaning among MSMEs proprietors ‘ ?
Are there any differences in the hazard taking leaning among MSMEs proprietors ‘ associating to their age?
Are there any differences in the hazard taking leaning among MSMEs proprietors ‘ associating to their instruction degree?
Are there any differences in the hazard taking leaning among MSMEs proprietors ‘ associating to their concern experience?
Is size of concern of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is length of concern operation of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is the type of concern of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is the sum of start-up funding of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is the beginning of start-up funding of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is the concern location of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
Is the figure of employees of MSMEs related to their hazard taking leaning?
1.4 Research Aims
This survey aims to lend to the apprehension of hazard taking leaning among Malayan MSMEs. Based on this purpose, the aims of this survey are described as follows:
To find the degree of hazard taking leaning among the Malayan MSMEs proprietors.
To look into the differences between demographic features and degree of hazard taking leaning of Malayan MSMEs proprietors
To analyse the relationship between demographic features and degree of hazard taking leaning of Malayan MSMEs proprietors.
To analyse the relationship between concern features and hazard taking leaning of Malayan MSMEs proprietors.
To supply recommendation to assorted establishments ton how hazard taking leaning could heighten the success of the concern.
1.6 Significance of the survey
This survey was important for a figure of grounds. First, hazard taking leaning is important in the enterpriser ‘s field because this factor will assist the industry to spread out as the enterprisers ‘ success. The findings of this research will assist entrepreneurs to entree more information or guidelines on how to move and respond on the hazard taking leaning in running their concern. This information besides will be able to set up the influence of hazard taking leaning profile of MSMEs enterprisers in finding the entrepreneurial success, thereby progressing our cognition of entrepreneurship from the position of a underdeveloped state like Malaysia.
Second, the survey efforts to lend to the organic structure of cognition ; both in the Fieldss of hazard direction and entrepreneurship by researching the relationship between concern proprietors demographic, concern features with hazard taking leaning among micro and little concern enterprisers. This information is of import because more people are interested to go concern proprietors and enterprisers in response to the authorities ‘s purpose to give more installations to the enterprisers including grants, loan, developing and many more inducements to promote people to go enterprisers. A figure of surveies have focused on analyzing hazard taking leanings among enterprisers in the Western universe. However, non many surveies have been done in this context in Malaysia. The findings from this survey would cast some penetrations on the profile of hazard taking leaning of the micro and little concern proprietors in footings of its demographic factors.
Finally, to guarantee uninterrupted growing and development of micro, little and average endeavors is indispensable for the economic sciences development of the state. , entrepreneurial success will be the focal point issues by authorities. Awareness of the hazards involved in an entrepreneurial venture, together with the ability to entree their hazard taking leaning might assist the enterprisers achieve success in their concern. Additionally, consciousness of the concern and personal features impacting hazard taking leaning of successful enterprisers may enable the possible enterpriser to analyze and strength their success potency. Ultimately, the findings of this research may assist the contrivers of the state to promote the MSMEs enterprisers to increase their degree of attitudes which will act upon the organisational effectivity to suit the demand of the industry.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study
The survey was done in two provinces of east seashore of Malaysia i.e Kelantan and Terengganu. Even though the survey was done in Kelantan and Terengganu the findings and decisions can be applied to the MSMEs industry because of the similitudes of the regulations, ordinances and concern environment.
The survey was limited to:
Micro to medium endeavors per the categorization of National Small and Medium Enterprise Development Council, Malaysia.
The endeavors registered with SMIDEC in Kelantan and Terengganu.
The endeavors those are still active in the concern.
1.8 Research Organization
This survey is organized into five chapters including this debut chapter. The following chapter which is Chapter Two will reexamine the theoretical premiss and empirical grounds from the old surveies refering to put on the line taking leaning and enterpriser, particularly those puting possible relationship between concern proprietors demographic and concern features as related to put on the line taking leaning. Next, Chapter Three describes the variables selected for this survey every bit good as warranting why certain variables were included in the survey. This chapter besides includes the treatment of research theoretical model and the research methodological analysis employed in this survey which include the research design, description of sample, questionnaire design and field work execution. Chapter Four presented informations analysis and treatment on research findings. Finally, Chapter Five summarized the decisions of the empirical findings of the survey. This concluding chapter besides outlined some suggestions on the way for farther research in the position of hazard taking leaning among enterprisers.