The management of human resources has
become the most important source of innovation competitive advantage, and
productivity, more so than any other resource. More than ever human resource
management (HRM) professionals need the knowledge and skills to design HRM
policies and practices that not only meet legal requirements but are also
effective in supporting organizational strategy
A series of studies over the last decade
have indicated that considerable change have been taking place in the way in
which organizations recruit their workers. In particular several authors have
pointed to the growing prominence of both internal labour market(ILM)
recruitment and word of mouth recruitment, for example Jenkins et al6 while
others such as Woods and Manwaring 7 suggest that such channels are
increasingly prominent ,not as a result of increased usage, but because these
channels have been maintained during the recession, while other forms of
recruitment , such as the use of job centre or press advertisements have been
ignored or minimised.
Manwaring 8 introduced the term ‘external
internal labour market’ (EILM) to refer to word of mouth recruitment. This is
one of the forms of recruitment that has been shown to have increased markedly.
Employers indicate that the reason that lie behind this recruitment strategy is
that it is cheap and their chance of securing appropriately skilled stable and
reliable workers enhanced by effectively placing existing workers in the
position of guaranteeing the recruits they introduced. Manwaring8 indicates
that recruitment in this form offers workers the opportunity to gain access to
social community that provided cultural support as well as information on the
wage rates, conditions etc. . . .
not only for customers, but also for talented employees (Allen, Van Scotter,
& Otondo, 2004). Because organizational success is largely dependent on
individuals, the first step in developing superior human capital is to adopt
appropriate attraction and retention practices.
Employer branding enables organizations to attract and retain the human
capital needed to gain a competitive advantage (Ambler & Barrow, 1996;
Barrow & Mosley, 2005). Branding is “the process of developing an intended
brand identity” (Kotler & Lee, 2008, p. 215). Branding is often used to
differentiate products and companies in order to build economic value for both
the consumer and the company. It is concerned with the attraction, engagement
and retention initiatives targeted at enhancing a company’s employer brand.
research investigation was undertaken within the SSD (Solid State Drive)
independent of the decision to introduce competence based recruitment and
selection methods. The investigation aimed to discover whether managers would
enhance the recruitment or selection process and if so, how. The research
provided a comprehensive critique both positive and negative of the existing
recruitment system as well as some understanding of the participants’ attitudes
towards competence and competency based recruitment and its implications. The
decision to move to a more focussed, objective, competence based approach to
recruitment and selection require radical and positive changes to existing
Atkinson suggested that organisations are seeking to secure flexibility
with regard to their labour input and are doing so increasingly by transferring
jobs first to a peripheral sector made up of part time workers and then to
short term contract workers, out workers and sub-contractors .Firms
increasingly attempt to exhibit only a small core of full time, permanent,
secure workers. The implications of these changes for recruitment have not been
a focus of attention as yet but they are likely to be substantial.
Firms interviewed in depth were asked about
their methods of recruitment. Many, large and small, relied largely on informal
channels, particular word of mouth or people ringing in or “ringing around”
using lists that have been built up.
Though favouring ‘insiders’ rather than
‘outsiders’ and thereby perpetuating inequalities, informal recruitment
channels continue to be important to recruitment generally, especially in
certain jobs and industries, with small firms, in the private sector, and in
periods of unemployment (Alpin and Shackleton 1998). Several firms interviewed
in depth still recruited people turning up on site, a method found also in the
Scottish construction sector and one that is symptomatic of a craft labour
market (see Lockyer and Schlarios 2007). Other firms however appeared to
increasingly shun this method, which can also discriminate against women.
The quality of selection also influences the caliber
of candidate willing to accept an offer of employment. It is patently obvious
that recruitment procedures should be conceptualized as a two-way process, but
it remains uncertain as to why research in this area has for so long been
predominantly one-sided. Another recent development in recruitment technology
is the use of computers in the process of candidate screening.
It is a truism that there is, and always has been,
self-evaluation by the applicant in the early stages of recruitment — on the
basis of advertisement details, for instance — with only those considering
themselves to be competent applying. More recently, this technique has been
conducted, both in the later stages of recruitment (e.g. by self-score tests
prior to interviews) and in the selection interview and subsequent
decision-making process itself.
Intuitively, self-evaluation seems to have
considerable potential, presently under-researched and under-exploited.
Despite numerous reviews spanning several decades
which consistently concluded that the interview has unacceptably low validity
and reliability (e.g. Wagner 27, Ulrich and Trumbo 28, Wright 29, Schmitt
30, Arvey and Campion 31), it is still overwhelmingly popular in this
country (Gill 32, Robertson and Makin 33).
is an issue for the company since it is a new industry, there are skill
shortages, and it provides a 24 hour service. Local people are preferred, but
specialist skills are imported. At present expatriates are used to ?ll key
positions if needed, but a policy of developing and growing talent in-house is
in place. A succession planning system is now in development to further enhance
this. Continuous improvement is one of the core values, and models to assist
career planning in the company and in future careers outside the company are
being introduced. Selection methods cover a wide range of tools, although
psychometrics are only just being piloted to see if they add value to the
process at a senior level. Recruitment is skills driven, not industry nor
locality driven. Previous experience of working in the industry is not
essential; however, the skills for the job are important and would be expected.
The main criterion for recruitment is
the ability to do the job. Whether the individual is local or not is not of
importance. Individuals are recruited in order to help
expand the business or maintain the quality of the product. Recruitment is
considered in order to grow the business. Methods of recruitment for this
company will not change in the near future. The company looks inside its own
industry for staff because of the specialist nature of the business.
Recruitment generally tends to be low. This is because it is company philosophy
to try and keep staff happy and motivated in their work.