The current climate change is projected to have a
significant influence over biodiversity. The changes

a threat to approximately a quarter or more of all species on the land by the
year 2050. Due to earth’s rapid warming that is now faster than at any time in
the past 10,000 years, the species survival is likely to be at the fullest risk.

            The rapid heating temperature on
earth almost always caused danger to plants, animals, places and even people’s
livelihoods. It also damages the ecosystem, including coral reefs, whole loss
of unique forms of life that will create a complete disaster on earth.

            These changes force the species to
adapt to new climate patterns, if species can not evolve to live in a certain
ranges of temperature, or when it actually lives dependent to a certain
temperature range, then its existence is endangered. With the more intense
rising of sea level and warmer ocean, the prolonged period of a shortage of
water resulted threaten crops, wildlife and storage of fresh water. From polar
bears in the Artic to marine turtles off the coast of Africa, the earth’s
diversity of life is at danger from the changing climate.

            Numerous studies uncover how species
shift their geographic ranges in reaction to climate change, usually that are
moving to higher elevations and latitudes. The local extinction also record the
loss of population at the warm edge of species ranges that located in the lower
elevations and latitudes. The data 
specifically show that among 976 species surveyed, local extinction
occurred in 47%. Loss of species is 
commonly occur across the climatic zones, habitats and group of organism
but that usually exist in tropical region. The species mostly are Earth’s species
animals that relative to plants and those that are in the freshwater


These loss will almost definitely rise as global climate continues to warm in
the coming years.

            Since anthropogenic climate change
has impact on species survival. The Global mean annual temperature was
increased from 0.85?C between 1880 and 2012 and are likely to rise further by 1?C
to 4?C by 2100. Most studies of species loss resulted by climate change has
many uncertainty. One of the most important sources of uncertainty cruxes on
how these species respond to climate change. For example, if species can evolve
rapidly following the rapid change of climate, their extinction might actually
be limited. Their respond to climate change will no longer dependent on its
current geographic range. Thus, the possible responses of the species might be
that the species realized niche changes to integrate these new climatic
condition by adapting to

modified abiotic or biotic condition,  or
species move to higher latitudes or elevation and going extinct. These
responses have been seen in some cases and proven to be real, but the qualified
occurrence of each is still unclear.

            Range shifts observe to have
composed of one or both of change types; the expansion at the cool edge which
the higher latitudes and elevation, and the contraction of warm edge which is
the lower latitudes and elevations. The presence of warm edge contraction is
important.  If a warm edge contraction
occurs when population at the lowest latitudes or elevations of a species no
longer occur at its region, it will lead to overall shift in the species range
towards higher latitudes or elevations. Contraction indicate that species has
failed to tolerate the new conditions and these population will extinct.

            Examples from across diverse
climatic zones, habitats and taxonomic group were found as local extinction.

Although not all the species exhibit range shifts showed warm edge
contractions, but almost half of the species surveyed is directly related to
climate change. The result suggest that even a small changes in climate that
has already occurred is enough to cause widespread of local extinctions and
many species are unable to respond fast enough to climate change to avoid

            Among the 976 unique species
surveyed, 460 species had warm edge contractions and 516 did not. This meaning
that local extinction due to climate change is already common. The study had
non significant  result in the beginning,
but the comparison between species that showed warm edge contraction and
provide no potentials discernment to which species may be the most sensitive to
climate change, in terms of the clades they belong to, the climatic zones and
habitats they occur in. Overall, the regularity of local extinction was similar
across most climatic zones, habitats, gradients and clades. Still, there were
some significant differences.       

            There are six highlighted species
that already in decline due to climate change found by Scholes, ecologist
system at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in
Pretoria, South Africa and Pörtner, an animal physiologist and marine biologist
based at the Alfred Wegener institute in Bremerhaven, Germany: (1) The Orange-spotted filefish that lives totally dependent in
coral reef habitats, which are decliming due to climate change. In addition,
this fish is highly sensitive to warm water. (2)
Quiver tree is prevalent to the arid west of South Africa and Namibia. Since
the tree is moist, they are the most vulnerable to rapid change. Moreover, a
study prove that quiver tree is unable to grow and disperse quickly enough to
keep up with a fast changing climate. (3) Polar
bear is a large predator that lives in the Artic sea that currently decreasing
during summer time. Due to climate change, the sea ice is forming later and
disappearing earlier in the spring. As the Artic sea retreats, they have to
find alternative food. This might resulted the polar bears to come on the land
to eat the terrestrial food and might somehow doing find without the sea ice. (4) Adélie penguin that is called krill live on tiny
crustaceans. They live on the undersides of ice sheets, where they find refuge
and algae as food. But as the Antarctic sea ice retreats, their populations are
decreasing. This resulted them to migrate further to find food and makes them
failing in breeding and raising the young penguins. (5) North Atlantic cod has dropped in numbers and has not been
able to keep up with the new ecosystem due to changing ocean currents and
invasion of cold Artic waters. (6) Golden toad has
been decreasing in numbers and known as amphibians that is going extinct. This
decline is attributed to climatic changes.

            The result of the study show that
local extinction related to climate change has spread out and have occurred in
hundreds of species. Currently only half of 976 species are surveyed for range
shift as proof of local extinctions. Surprisingly, the proportion is similar
across the diverse climatic regions, habitats and taxonomic groups. The result
suggest that even a modest change in climate is enough to drive species to
extinct. The result also suggest how many of the species could not shift their
climate change rapidly enough to prevent extinction. Most analyses showed that
extinction is more common in tropical species, freshwater and animals. Overall,
the result support that negative impacts are more frequent to happen due to
climate change is in the tropical regions.

            Given this result, many of the
species might depend largely on their ability to successfully shift their
geographic ranges to higher latitudes or elevations. Indeed, the summary shows
stable condition among at the cool edge expansions. Unfortunately the movements
maybe hindered by several factors. First, humans who always be the one that
prevent species from effectively dispersing or sometimes humans leave no space
for them to disperse. Second, many species are restrained to islands,
peninsulas and mountaintops, where dispersal to a higher latitudes and
elevations maybe impossible. Third, even if dispersal is unhindered by humans
or natural barriers, it may be actually happen to slower the species for them
to remain within their climatic change. The combination of these potentials
limits to dispersal and spreading here is concerning.


            In summary, the result showed that
extensive spread of local extinctions have occurred among hundreds of species
with similar patterns of extinctions across varies clades, habitats and
climatic regions. This local extinction offers 
a possible significant source of information but fail to utilize the
task of predicting the patterns of species survival and extinction in the

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