Virtual libraries are often referred to as “libraries without walls” and it is the Internet that provides the “windows” and the “transparency” which makes this possible. It allows users who are physically isolated from the library to see in and it allows those inside the library to see out. Although the great dreams of Universal Availability of Publications ( UAP ) and Universal Bibliographic Control ( UBC ) ( Law. 1998 ) . that have enthralled coevalss of bibliothecs. are still unfulfilled. the pervasion of the Internet throughout every aspect of day-to-day life brings the dream closer to world.
The major. but by no agencies sole applications of the Internet have been in the signifier of the World Wide Web and the constitution of intranets ( locally based Internet functionality ) . Library Web sites In recent old ages a great trade of activity in libraries has been devoted to the design. execution and polish of library Web sites. These have formed the basic construction and substructure of the practical library and the services have included on-line public entree catalogues ( OPACs ) . distance acquisition. library promotion. library retentions and other installations.
OPACs Most libraries have devoted big outgos on the development of on-line public entree catalogues ( OPACs ) . The on-line facet of these catalogues. originally aimed at internal usage. has now been extended to include external entree. In add-on to the library’s stock of stuffs. such as books and audio-visual stuffs. the OPACs can besides supply entree to the library’s diaries retentions and enable outside users to find which diaries are held by the library and in which portion of the library.
The Internet enables libraries at different locations to organize webs affecting their OPACs to give rise to powerful brotherhood catalogues. peculiarly of diaries retentions. The cataloguing attempts have tended to be double in that they use the Internet as a medium for The writer Nick Moore is an Information Consultant. Visiting Professor at the University of Brighton. and Internet Editor of Library Review. Keywords Libraries. Librarians. Library services. Internet Abstract The current and future applications and deductions of the Internet within and for libraries are indicated.
Aspects of the practical library are considered. followed by the impact of the Internet on facets of library retentions. Features of on-line entree. including search engine public presentation. are celebrated and aggregation development effects pointed out. Security issues. including erotica and right of first publication are described. and eventually future deductions of the Internet for libraries. through place versus library usage and treatment groups. and influences on the Internet of library scientific discipline are discussed.
Electronic entree The current issue and full text archive of this diary is available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. emerald-library. com Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. pp. 422±427 # MCB University Press. ISSN 0024-2535 422 The Internet and the library Nick Moore Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. 422±427 co-operation while developing techniques for cataloguing Internet-based stuffs ( Weber. 1999 ) . Distance larning Academic libraries functioning a scattered pupil population can supply sophisticated distance larning programmes [ 1 ] .
The widespread entree of the Internet into the places of the pupils ensures the success of these strategies and enables the libraries to supply class stuffs and other paperss electronically to pupils scattered over broad countries. peculiarly rural countries. Typical applications include the DERAL ( Distance Education in Rural Areas via Libraries ) undertaking [ 2 ] and Project LISTED ( Library Integrated System for Telematics-based Education ) . a European Commission undertaking portion funded under the Telematics Applications Programme ( Libraries sector ) [ 3 ] .
A figure of theoretical accounts have been applied to the assorted ways in which the Web can be used as portion of the pupil larning experience: . the “open resource model” ; where the Web is accessed to recover information from diverse beginnings which may. or may non. be educationally-based ; .
The “learning stuffs model” where the Web contains specific resources for pupils such as background reading recommended by academic staff ; . the “teaching stuffs model” which contains information provided by academic staff and related to a peculiar class of survey and may incorporate brief sum-ups of talks and be a replacing for paper-based press releases ; .
The “directed acquisition model” incorporating the complete set of larning stuffs for a class ; . “computer assisted larning model” . affecting computer-based preparation for self-study by pupils ; and the “communication model” where pupils discourse and join forces on their surveies through installations such as computing machine conferencing.
Library promotion The Internet has stimulated libraries into puting a great trade of clip and imaginativeness into supplying information about the library and its services. The proviso of seeking installations on most sites allows users to interrogate the Web sites.
An illustration of the scope of library promotion options offered by a library Web site is the updated introductory library usher for first twelvemonth undergraduates. produced by Bath University Library and Learning Centre in which the printed usher was replaced by a recognition card holder bearing the Library logo and Web site URL on the forepart and a concertina insert with basic information ( SCONUL Newsletter. 2000 ) . Library retentions The deductions of the Internet for library retentions are both wide-ranging and combative.
The ability to replace internallyheld paper stock with either entree to electronic equivalents via the Internet or storage and proviso of electronic stuffs held on library or library-group intranets is peculiarly attractive given the turning force per unit areas placed on the library’s ability to hive away physically a turning sum of stuff ( Bawden. 1999 ; Rowlands. 1999 ) .
Electronic diaries The defeat ( for libraries ) . caused by the reluctance of many diaries publishing houses to confront the sensed hazards of traveling off from printed and towards electronic diaries. seems to be melting as the growing and acceptableness of business-to-business electronic commercialism is motivating publishing houses to do a committedness to the new formats.
In add-on to the big figure of free electronic diaries that are presently available to libraries. there are a big figure of subscription diaries that offer libraries the ability to subscribe on the same footing as print or to entree on a pay-for-view footing.
The function of the collector. good established in the universe of print diaries. in the signifier of the subscription agent. far from being rendered disused by the outgrowth of electronic diaries has really been reinvented and forms one of the chief agencies by which libraries entree electronic diaries via the Internet ( CatchWord [ 4 ] . EBSCOhost/ EBSCO Online [ 5 ] ) . Electronic books Electronic books ( e-books ) are presently demoing mark of taking off after a slightly rickety start. Publishers who are contemplating casting their book programmes could good be moving prematurely.
Many publishing houses are bring forthing HTML versions of the first 423 The Internet and the library Nick Moore Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. 422±427 chapters of their books and these will be highly valuable as aggregation development tools. A scope of beginnings depicting e-books are available [ 6-10 ] . Patents An first-class illustration of the handiness of freely accessible online databases is the wealth of full text patent databases ( UK and US Patent Offices [ 11. 12 ] ) accessible on the Web.
The ability of users to entree and obtain transcripts of UK and US patents from these databases has meant that the British Library’s patent libraries are virtually deserted and the staying users tend to be those interested in old patents presently held on microfilm. As these patents become digitised. the British Library will be able to reapportion the infinite to other maps.
The vision of a library comprising electronic stuff is unattractive to many people but there can be no denying that electronic stuffs have both the agencies of alleviating the force per unit area on infinite and the malleability to impart themselves to easier transmittal. copying and recycling into particular formats such as speaking books. There are still many jobs staying to be solved and these include issues of permanency in archival stuff [ 13 ] .
Search engines It likely came as a awful surprise to many to see the comparatively hapless coverage of the Web by the major hunt engines reported in recent surveies ( Lawrence and Lee. 1998 ; 1999 ) .
However. betterments continue to be made in the coverage. seasonableness. functionality and particular entree characteristics incorporated into the current scope of hunt engines. Reviews of hunt engine characteristics continue to look on a regular basis in the literature ( Webber. 1998 ) . Gateways. portals and vortals The value of Web sites as information beginnings for libraries has been greatly increased with the outgrowth of gateways. portals and vortals ( vertically integrated portals ) .
These services provide structured entree to other. related. Web sites and profit the users from the rational attempt that goes into the choice processes that are used to choose the site ( a procedure really much correspondent to the choice procedure undertaken by libraries to pitch library aggregations to the demands of library users ) . Portals and vortals are peculiarly valuable for concern information and tend to supply information free of charge. the services being funded by advertisement ( Peek. 1999 ) .
Online database entree One of the major revolutions introduced by the Internet is the immensely increased entree to online information made possible via the World Wide Web. The scope of information beginnings. in footings of both bibliographic and image databases and specialised Web sites on all topics is huge.
A immense betterment in the entree to online medical information has been wrought through the proviso of free and limitless entree to MEDLINE through a figure of otherwise packaged versions. notably PubMed [ 14 ] . When this is coupled with on-line papers bringing ( Loansome Doc ) . the consequence is a powerful on-line tool for all libraries.
Similar illustrations include the free entree to the ERIC database and to the full text patent databases mentioned above. The major online sellers. such as DIALOG. now all offer Web versions of their dial-up services. taking advantage of the possibilities of document bringing of electronic diary articles straight from the publishing houses or indirectly from the collectors. Image databases As image databases continue to go of import as agencies both of continuing images from printed media and for enabling entree to ocular information. so the demand for indexing and capable entree has become pressure.
Digital libraries of geospatial and similar multimedia content are presently deficient in supplying fuzzed. concept-based retrieval mechanisms to users. Considerable work has been undertaken by the United Geological Survey in mechanizing the labor-intensive procedures of indexing and synonym finder creative activity for text paperss and particularly for images. where 800. 000 declassified orbiter exposures have been made available ( Ramsey et al. . 1999 ) .
Collection development. outsourcing. interlending and papers bringing The Internet provides a figure of chances for libraries to better their aggregation development. interlending and 424 The Internet and the library Nick Moore Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. 422±427 document bringing procedures and exchange to outsourcing. Collection development The procedure of aggregation development has been revolutionised by the outgrowth of trade name new Web-based information beginnings. in add-on to Web-based equivalents of traditional choice tools.
Of peculiar value for book choice is the Amazon. com household of Web resources. which incorporate seeking installations. reappraisals written by voluntaries and mechanisms for buying books that have been selected.
Old front-runners. such as Bowker’s Books in Print. have besides launched Web sites with similar functionality and customer-friendly characteristics. These choice tools will go even more powerful as publishing houses develop electronic books ( e-Books ) and let go of HTML versions of the first chapters of their books to these services enabling libraries to hold even more information on which to do their choice opinions. The increasing acceptableness of business-to-business electronic commercialism is bound to do library buying a drum sander and more efficient procedure and lead to be nest eggs.
Periodicals market forces. budgetary restraints and growing in electronic resources buying have resulted in a diminution in the acquisition of print points. Due to the diminution of print aggregations. libraries are researching co-operative aggregation development of print stuffs to guarantee entree and saving. The diminution of blessing program usage and the demand for co-operative aggregation development may necessitate extra attempt for sound aggregation development ( Blecic. 1999 ) .
Outsourcing As the Internet and World Wide Web interrupt down the barriers dividing the library from the remainder of the universe and as communications are improved drastically. so the advantages. peculiarly to public libraries. of outsourcing library procedures. such as cataloguing and acquisitions. are going progressively attractive. The ground given most frequently by libraries for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost nest eggs ( Blecic. 1999 ) .
Interlending and document bringing The underlying job of interlending and papers bringing has ever been that of communicating. whether it be the communicating of information sing stuffs to be loaned or the transmittal of electronic transcripts of existent paperss.
The influence of the Internet has been felt throughout this procedure and manifests itself in the usage of electronic mail ( e-mail ) for telling paperss. the usage of the Web for the transmittal of electronic articles or other stuffs and the development of the Internet’s ability to supply libraries with the chance to develop their aggregations beyond the walls of their libraries ; where the physical location of stuffs is no longer the cardinal issue. but instead the proviso of timely entree to information ( Scully. 1999 ) .
Security issues In add-on to the security issues confronting libraries in the usage of electronic commercialism for buying and similar hard currency minutess. there are besides Internet issues affecting the entree. by kids and immature people. to pornography or other stuff likely to be considered unsuitable and to copyright issues. Access to pornography One of the challenges confronting public libraries is that of unsupervised entree to the Internet by kids and immature people.
Public libraries are progressively adding Internet and Web entree. along the lines of the burgeoning cybercafes. Considerable concern has been A uttered sing the possibility of kids and immature people going corrupted by some of the less attractive corners of the Web. Part of the job lies in the defects of the hunt engines which can give some really unusual “false drops” . These jobs. together with the possibility of calculated entree. have been addressed by efforts to develop “filtering” package ; so far with assorted consequences.
Presently available filtrating package and services are notoriously gawky. sometimes barricading absolutely respectable sites and restricting whole countries of legitimate question for immature people through the usage of footings which might hold sexual intensions ( Stoker. 1999 ) . Many companies are put ining package designed to barricade entree. by employees. to selected Internet sites ( Rudich. 1999 ) . The issue tends to be wrapped up with considerations of freedom of information and is still racked with contention. 425.
The Internet and the library Nick Moore Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. 422±427 Copyright Publishers have tended to hold assorted feelings about the Internet and libraries. The matrimony between publishing houses and libraries. though a natural and. for the most portion. a symbiotic 1 has ever been fraught with trouble. with each be givening to surmise the other of unfaithfulness from clip to clip. The outgrowth of the Internet has served to do a hard matrimony even more so. despite the fact that tremendous chances exist.
Publishers likely do non hold adequate experience yet to do lasting policy about right of first publication and just usage but everyone involved in the publication concatenation should be flexible and trust the market to order what is required [ 15 ] . Science owes more to the steam engine F F F The profound influence that the steam engine had on the development of thoughts in thermodynamics is happening an reverberation in the influence that the library and information scientific discipline ( LIS ) profession is get downing to hold on certain facets and maps of the Internet.
The hunt engines. which started out in isolation from the mainstream of LIS research. are get downing to take stock and use some of the long-established library techniques. peculiarly categorization. to extra beds of construction to Web sites. An of import illustration of where library pattern has influenced Web site design and hunt engine functionality is in the outgrowth of metadata ( Vine. 1999 ; Heery. 1996 ) .
OCLC’s Dublin Core metadata elements. pulling to a great extent on the structured computerised bibliographic database formats. such as MARC. originally developed for sharing cataloguing informations. are playing an progressively of import function in conveying order to the Web [ 16 ] . Similarly. the attempts expended by the library and information community in making USMARC Field 856 ( Electronic Location and Access ) ( Riemer. 1998 ) . Persistent Uniform resource Locator ( PURL ) [ 17 ] and the Digital Object Identifier ( DOI ) [ 18-20 ] have played a important function in accomplishing greater library development of the Internet.
One possible result could be the death of the traditional abstracting and indexing ( A & A ; I ) services. which have for a long clip been beginnings of heavy outgo for libraries. As hunt engines become progressively sophisticated and publishing houses include metadata ( including abstracts and indexing ) with their electronic diaries. the demand for A & A ; Is could decrease unless they can do a sufficiently good instance for their standardized indexing.
Another illustration of this phenomenon is the manner that the traditional construct of selective airing of information ( SDI ) has become adopted by the Internet in the signifier of “push” engineerings ( Solomon. 1999 ) . Home usage versus library usage Of all the library/Internet challenges yet to go clearly defined is the likely future consequence of place entree to information beginnings on the Web. Users who can entree full text databases from the comfort of their places may avoid the traditional visit to the library.
The tendency towards end-user seeking. much vaunted and much maligned in the 1980s and early 1990s. where it was applied to dial-up online services. is now get downing to come into its ain with entree to the Web. Public libraries may non be affected every bit much as academic libraries and the services provided by national libraries. but the inquiry arises as to the grade to which the powerful information entree tools that are readily available to anyone with a personal computing machine ( Personal computer ) at place and entree to the Internet will reshape some of the services and service doctrines presently using to libraries.
Discussion groups The application of the Internet and World Wide Web. as a medium for assorted degrees of treatment and the communicating of thoughts and positions. is going peculiarly valuable for library and information scientific discipline ( LIS ) professionals who can utilize treatment package. Usenet. electronic mail treatment lists ( Mailbase. LIS-LINK ) . electronic conferencing. instant messaging. chat rooms and videoconferencing to help them by naming on the expertness of other LIS professionals if they have peculiar demands or are stuck for thoughts. 426 The Internet and the library Nick Moore.
Library Review Volume 49. Number 9. 2000. 422±427 Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. patent. gov. uk/dbservices/ & gt ; 12 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. uspto. gov/patft/index. hypertext markup language & gt ; 13 14 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ncbi. nlm. National Institutes of Health. gov/entrez/query. fcgi & gt ; 15 16 17 18 19 20 References Bawden. D. ( 1999 ) . Libri. Vol. 49 No. 4. December. pp. 181-91. Blecic. D. D. ( 1999 ) . Bulletin of the Medical Library Association. Vol. 87 No. 2. April. pp. 178-86. Heery. R. ( 1996 ) . Program. Vol. 30 No. 4. October. pp. 345-73. Law. D. ( 1998 ) . Library Review. Vol. 47 No. 5/6. pp. 296-300. Lawrence. S. and Lee. C. G. ( 1998 ) . Science. Vol.
280 No. 3 April. pp. 98-100. Lawrence. S. and Lee. C. G. ( 1999 ) . Nature. Vol. 400 No. 8. July. pp. 107-9. ( Summarized by David Green in Information World Review. No. 151. October 1999. pp. 31-32 and in a three page sum-up from Steve Lawrence. Peek. R. P. ( 1999 ) . Information Today. Vol. 16 No. 8. September. pp. 36-7. Ramsey. M. C. et Al. ( 1999 ) . Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Vol. 50 No. 9. July. pp. 826-34. Riemer. J. J. ( 1999 ) . Cataloguing & A ; Classification Quarterly. Vol. 26 No. 2. pp. 5-9. Rowlands. I. ( 1999 ) . Libri. Vol. 49 No. 4. December. pp.
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