The development of Information Technology use in concern procedures has increased organisations ‘ public presentation and efficiency and saw an exponential rise in organisation growing as profitableness heighten. However, surveies show that organisations that saw rise in public presentation by the employment of IT in their procedures were those that were able to prolong the usage of IT in their concern procedures even for a finite period. As concern procedures continue to trust greatly on IT for sweetening, modern direction strategic rules in recent times have since seen the outgrowth of two separate yet coexisting strategic spheres: the concern scheme and IT scheme alining to accomplish a common organisational end. This new outgrowth prompted legion researches as Steven and Wim ( 2009 ) called for “ a specific focal point on IT administration to manage the critical dependence on IT ” to steer executions of IS in organisations which, harmonizing to Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) “ represents a construction that pursues corporate ends ” .
Many surveies have been done on the construct of Business-IT alliance and its sustainability in an organisation. Frameworks, theoretical accounts, and tools have been built, redesigned, and enhanced, but surveies on how Business-IT alliance straight impact on organisation growing has non been majorly ventured on by many research workers. This paper seeks to analyze five old plants done by outstanding writers on this Business-IT alliance construct and place how their findings and posits practically relate to organisational theoretical account and can impact the public presentation every bit good as growing of any organisation that seeks to follow developed theoretical accounts or models associating to Business-IT alliance.
As stated above, “ the importance of IT ” as pointed out by Steven and Wim ( 2009 ) , Salah et Al ( 2008 ) , “ has become important in the support, sustainability, and growing of the concern and ” as “ a agency to implement concern aims ” . In their research, Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) viewed this imperative dependence on IT as a construct taking “ at the effectual development of IT in an administration, at the effectual enabling ( and non disenabling ) of the administration by IT ” . Besides, Bjorn et Al ( 2007 ) viewed it as “ the grade to which the ICT mission, aims and programs support and are supported by the concern mission, aims and programs ” . Steven and Wim ( 2009 ) further viewed it in footings of “ IT administration consisting of the leading and organizational constructions and processes that guarantee that the administration ‘s IT sustains and extends the administration ‘s scheme and aims ” . However, Felix and Brent ( 2005 ) suggested that “ there are two dimensions to business-IS alignment-intellectual and societal of which a major constituent of the societal dimension of alliance is the shared apprehension between concerns and IS executives and the business-IS alliance concept denotes the rational dimension ” . In position of the societal facet of Business-IT alliance, Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) cited duty as a critical portion of direction theory and organisation theoretical account and “ to bettering business/IT alliance and corporate ICT administration, it becomes progressively of import to specify a normally accepted personal duty theoretical account that embodies of import and well-known constructs like answerability, capableness and committedness ” .
Many organisations already have ends and concern schemes that create concern procedures which determine what IT processes will be adopted and therefore which IT scheme will be employed to heighten the concern processes. Matching concern procedures with IT processes and scheme is the major challenge in this alliance construct. In position of this, Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) elucidated that “ the possible strategic impact of information engineering requires both an apprehension of the critical constituents of IT scheme and its function in back uping and determining concern scheme determinations and a procedure of uninterrupted version and alteration ” . Salah et Al ( 2008 ) besides denotes IT scheme “ lend positively to the creative activity of new concern schemes or better support bing concern scheme ” . Strategic Alignment Model ( SAM ) , one of the earliest theoretical accounts postulated since the coming of Business-IT alliance, has since been a foundation for major research workers on the construct of Business-IT alliance. And harmonizing to Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) , “ about all ulterior theoretical accounts and confer withing patterns in alliance started ” from including Bjorn et Al ( 2007 ) , and Salah et Al ( 2008 ) .
In their research, Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) cited range, nucleus competences, and administration every bit related to the external scheme dimension of the strategic alliance theoretical account ( SAM ) , while work procedures, acquisition, preparation and development of accomplishments required to pull off and run the procedures and an “ administrative ” concern substructure / IT architecture relate to the internal dimension. Similarly, Bjorn et Al ( 2007 ) besides defined four spheres that they argued needed attending such as the concern scheme, ICT scheme, concern ( infra ) construction and ICT ( infra ) construction. They maintained that “ each of these spheres has its constitutional constituents: range, competences, administration, substructure, procedures and accomplishments ” . The above points conspicuously sighted IT architecture or ICT scheme as critical to modern strategic direction theoretical accounts to accomplish organisational public presentation and concern value. However, Salah et Al ( 2008 ) pointed that “ even if the SAM is widely admitted as a de facto standard tool for strategic alignment step and betterment, strategic alliance analysis is frequently based on subjective interviews ” .
In their paper, Salah et Al ( 2008 ) used nonsubjective method attack to present the usage of i* end theoretical accounts in scheme formalising in an endeavor sphere. Their research based on the comparing of two end theoretical accounts, depicting Business scheme, and IT scheme. Interview-based methodological analysis was used as Business and IT directors of two Belgian SMEs spouse endeavors: HappyMany and Concept & A ; Forme were interviewed in order to analyze the connexions, relationships, communicating and apprehension between both spheres ( Business and IT ) to accomplish Business/IT strategic alliance. Their finding high spots semantic correspondences between both schemes for Business-IT alliance to be sustained.
Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) criticized farther on the bases that “ alliance is non clearly defined and offers no grips for ( direction ) pattern such as the function of human histrions ” and “ organisational acquisition ” which Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) identified and elaborated on as duty facet of the SAM theoretical account.
In their research paper, Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) sought to supply good enhanced theoretical account built on SAM and based their work “ on re-assessing Business-IT alliance by shifting it in a incorporate model ” which was “ derived from the generic model for information direction ” considered to be a tool for direction and an “ incorporate architecture model ” ( IAF ) which is “ a design tool, taking at the development of reciprocally aligned concern and IT systems through a incorporate architecture ” . Their methodological analysis was to make an “ intermediate “ construction ” row and “ information/knowledge/communication ” column ” on the bing SAM repeating both as “ cardinal to a successful alliance of concern and IT ” . Their findings showed that alliance at the construction degree is linked with variables like architectures and capablenesss, and at the operations degree, with variables like procedures and accomplishments. They argue that “ these variables have to be horizontally and vertically ( relationship with the construction degree ) aligned ” in other for concern scheme to maximise the usage of IT in its procedures and hence public presentation and growing of the organisation.
Besides, Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) found it unfortunate that “ a big scope of IT oriented models ” depicts the duty facet of Business-IT alliance. Hence, they based their research on the rule that to hold a sustainable Business-IT alliance and impact on the growing of organisation there needed “ to hold duties clearly established and accepted internally by the confederates and externally by the stakeholders as good ” . For them “ organisation is a construction encompasses employees ( agent ) playing functions and that are responsible to execute procedures ‘ activities ” . They used the fact-finding methodological analysis to develop a duty theoretical account “ designed to be a structured representation of the duty necessary to accomplish a finite set of activities ( like in a procedure ) ” within an organisation. The writers identified “ three chief constituents of the duty theoretical account: Capability, Accountability and Commitment ” .
In their consequence, Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) argued that the duty theoretical account “ better the business/IT alliance and establishes clear apprehension of duties for IT ” and maintained that agents are held for answerability of their activity which “ addresses the committedness facet of the duty and accordingly increases the moralss of the concern in general ” . Their findings further elucidate that organisational growing is earnestly linked with the public presentation of concern procedures using the usage of IT. This public presentation depends on the right capableness and control been given to agents with the organisation.
Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) concluded that a sustainable Business-IT alliance “ is a combined management/design concern ” proposing active interaction across organisation construction. The research of Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) concluded that Business-IT alliance is sustained when duty are “ clearly defined and aligned with the concern ends ” . That is, “ the creative activity of policies ( concern, IT or security ) ” . This implied that duty is conspicuously necessary for concern procedures to be enhanced and public presentation increased to accomplish ends.
Bjorn et Al ( 2007 ) supports the above by denoting that “ Business and ICT planning and direction procedures should be tightly connected and integrated ” and “ strategic B/ICT alliance processes at a centralized degree have to be in line with strategic B/ICT alliance processes at a decentralized degree ” and therefore concluded that “ shared sphere cognition and common apprehension, typically societal elements, emerge as of import alliance enablers in combination with the old formal elements ” .
Rik and Daan ( 2000 ) demonstrated strength in their work to hold “ included the societal dimension of Business-IT alliance in their research ” thereby heightening the SAM with interactivity in the organisational theoretical account. However, they did non mention the deductions of their model on the public presentation of an organisation or how the model should be practised. Salah et Al ( 2008 ) enhanced Business-IT alliance construct with the debut of “ some formalization in the interview based alignment measuring procedure ” aimed at “ Measuring the gap/fit between Business Strategy and IT Strategy ” . However, the research methodological analysis employed gives suites for inaccuracy “ the categorization can be biased by the directors ‘ reading of the SAM theoretical account ” . Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) came up with a simple generic advanced duty theoretical account to cover with the Business-IT alliance nutriment from the operational bed of the SAM. However, this requires high people ‘s direction and trifles in denominating entree policy in an organisation and placing capablenesss of agents. Organizational public presentation diminishes when the duty theoretical account is non decently implemented.
Analysis of the findings above further shows that the issue is non utilizing IT to merely heighten and accomplish concern ends for a finite period, but in the nutriment of the Business-IT alliance to guarantee sustainable growing in organisations. The kernel of Business-IT alliance “ is to accomplish harmoniousness with the concern schemes and programs ” and “ to increased profitableness and competitory advantage ” in the modern market, Felix and Brent ( 2005 ) . Nutriment of Business-IT alliance required a concise acceptance of a usher ( model, theoretical account or tool ) to guarantee that the execution of IT follows an IT strategic theoretical account which aligns with the organisational strategic end and aims at all times. Steven and Wim ( 2009 ) further advised that before an organisation adopts and implements a Business-IT alliance theoretical account, “ it should, as indicated in the above definition, enable that IT sustains and extends the concern ends, or in other words, enable that IT is aligned to the concern demands ( business/IT alliance ) ” .
Again, analysis clarify that Business-IT alliance is a procedure affecting communicating and duty between the strategic bed and operational bed of an organisation. Felix and Brent ( 2005 ) cited that “ corporate brushs between concern and IS executives ” can non be overlooked in order to prolong Business-IT alliance in an organisation which is critical factor in finding the efficiency of concern procedure and growing of an IT goaded organisation. Furthermore, the findings of Christophe et Al ( 2008 ) elucidate that every entity in concern procedures should hold duties assigned to functions and tied to individuality with entree policy to steer the work flow of that agent as deficiency of duties across the administration diminution public presentation and growing in the long tally.
Future researches should establish on standardisation of Business-IT alliance theoretical accounts and models with regard to public presentation. Most researches made have been automatically goaded and seems far from placing the societal dimension as a critical input to holding a sustainable Business-IT alliance within an organisation since direction scheme all stream down to operations which interacts with the concern environment.