The use of performance-enhancing supplements are commonly used from
recreational athletes to professional athletes. Jacobson et al. reported that
79% of male athletes and 65% of female athletes have indicated that they used
some type of nutritional supplement during their college athletic career.
Vitamins, minerals, protein, creatine, and various “ergogenic” compounds are
the commonly used supplements that are often used without thorough awareness or any assessment of the potential benefits and risks included
with their use, and frequently without discussing with a sports nutrition
professional.(site) There is robust evidence that muscular strength
and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However,
it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the
adaptive response to exercise. (cite) In the case of some of the
amino acids there has been claims to promote muscle growth but little evidence
to support a benefit of supplementation of a various of amino acids for athletes
consuming a typical diet. Merimee, Rabiowitz, & Fineberg, (1969) had shown in
a study that very high doses of arginine, ornithine, and lysine may result in
increased circulating concentrations of growth hormone and insulin, but this
has not been shown to result in changes in lean body mass or in muscle function.
Thus , there needs to be heightened attention drawn towards
the effectiveness of supplementation use
among athletes in hope to provide them with knowledge about the potential
negative outcomes that can be associated supplement use.