Management can be defined as making the internal environment of an endeavor where persons working together in groups can execute expeditiously and efficaciously towards the attainment of group end.
In the words of James L. Ludney, “ Management is chiefly a undertaking of planning, organizing, motivation, and commanding the attempts of others towards a specific aim. ”
Management has consequence on public presentation in the manner that it affects the manner people observe their work and how they really perform the work.
Management maps are besides inter-connected and overlapping.
Frederick. W. Taylor ( 1856-1915, Philadelphia )
Frederick Winslow Taylor was born on 20th March in the twelvemonth 1856 in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was 2nd of the three kids of the Taylor household. Mr. Frederick Taylor was an American Mechanical Engineer who ever aimed to better industrial efficiency & A ; was besides known as the Father of Scientific Management and is besides regarded as one of the first most successful direction advisers. He is really good known besides when it comes to his Time & A ; Motion Study & A ; the Piece Rate system that he introduced.
In the twelvemonth 1911, he published “ The Principles of Scientific Management ” , it is one of the best work accepted worldwide.
Elton Mayo ( 1880-1949 )
Elton different paths – workers ‘logic of sentiment ‘ , directors motivated by ‘logic of cost and efficiency ‘ . Conflict was traveling to originate in such state of affairss. Analyzing on new country Mayo was one of the cardinal figures involved in Hawthorne Studies and his work put the foundation for the many ulterior direction and organizational thought.
He researched in countries of motive and committedness and worker – direction dealingss. “ the relation of working groups to direction was one of the cardinal jobs of… industry. ”
He pointed to the importance of communicating between direction and the workers and mentioned the recent ideas, that work satisfaction lay in acknowledgment, security, and sense of belonging, instead than pecuniary wagess. Communication between directors and workers was the cardinal – because of the jobs caused when they did n’t pass on good, he highlighted the understanding the demand of single ‘s reactions and demand for directors to hold regard towards their staff and workers.
Management As A Science:
Although direction as a subject has some of the characteristics of scientific discipline but direction is non an exact scientific discipline as natural philosophies and chemical science. It deals with the behaviour of human existences so it is a societal scientific discipline. Harmonizing to Keynes “ Science is a systematized organic structure of cognition which establishes relationship between cause and consequence. ”
In order to be called as scientific discipline, a topic should hold the undermentioned features:
A organized organic structure of cognition including constructs, rules and theories.
It should set up cause and consequence relationship.
Methods of enquiry should be scientific.
Principles should be variable and universally acceptable.
Similar to other societal scientific disciplines, direction is besides connected with human existences and it is non an exact scientific discipline like natural philosophies or chemical science. Although inexact, direction like societal scientific discipline is based on systematized organic structure of cognition ; its pattern depends on cause and consequence dealingss and non on personal likes and disfavors of directors. Principles of direction as in the instance of scientific discipline are derived from observations and experiments.
In early twentieth century, Henry Fayol formulated following 14 rules of direction:
Division of work & A ; duty Parity of authorization
Integrity of bid Unity of way Order
Subordination of single involvement to general involvement
Fair wage of employees
Centralization and decentalisation
Stability of term of office of forces Initiative
Esprit de Corps Equity
Concept introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor, Scientific Management was a systematic method to optimise the manner in which undertakings were performed taking to an betterment in the productiveness of labour. As Taylor had one time said, “ In the past adult male must hold been foremost. In the hereafter the system must be first ” [ ( beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/2449617/Principles-of-Management ) ppt. page 5 ] .
The scientific method gives a rational construction for analysing problems. It basically aids to specify the job, collect informations, analyze/study the information, better options, and take the best option. Taylor was of the position that if the scientific method would be practiced so it would ensue in an efficient manner of executing work. He believed that the pattern of scientific direction would be of advantage to both the employee and the employer via coevals of larger excess that would ensue in bring forthing more income for the organisation.
Principles of scientific direction
The rules of scientific direction harmonizing to F. W.Taylor were:
SCIENCE NOT RULE OF THUMB:
Taylor considered that simplification in work can be brought in scientifically. The Rule of Thumb was non a proper method of working out the jobs. In the early old ages of Industrial Revolution, mill directors depended more on personal judgement in go toing the jobs they came across for privation of proper theory of mill direction. This is what is referred to as ‘Rule of Thumb ‘ . Therefore we come to this decision that Rule of Thumb is nil but merely a defect as different directors have different thought and a different attack to state of affairss and jobs which might non be so effectual.
HARMONY, NOT DISCORD:
The mill construction of production points out that directors are go-betweens between the proprietors and the workers. Directors have to do certain to ‘get work done ‘ by the workers which has a possibility of a statements between directors versus the workers. Therefore Taylor acknowledged this job and concluded that neither workers non the direction would profit from this. Therefore, he stressed that there should be complete synchronism between direction and its workers. Both should understand that each one is of import.
COOPERATION, NOT INDIVIDUALISM:
Taylor was of the position that alternatively of self involvement there should be complete cooperation between labour and direction. This rule is like an extension of ‘Harmony, non strife ‘ . Cooperation should replace competition. Both should recognize that they are complimentary to each other. In this instance, direction should hear to suggestions given by employees. They should be rewarded for productive ideas that provides economic systems of cost.
DEVELOPMENT OF EACH & A ; EVERY PERSON TO HIS/HER GREATEST EFFICIENCY AND PROSPERITY:
Scientific direction has ever voted for worker development. Harmonizing to Taylor, preparation was indispensable to larn the ‘best method ‘ . He believed that employees must b selected scientifically so that the work assigned should accommodate his/her physical, mental or rational capablenesss.
As we know that direction is inexact scientific discipline and trades with human & A ; organisational behaviour therefore it is indispensable to analyze these facets of direction.
Organizational behaviour is the survey of cognition about how people as persons and as group act within organisation. It strives to place ways in which people can move more efficaciously. It is an applied scientific discipline about effectual patterns in an organisation.
Organizational behaviour provides a utile set of tools at many degrees of analysis. For illustration, it helps directors look at the behaviour of persons within an organisation. Most scientific disciplines portion four ends – to depict, understand predict and command some phenomena.
Four ends of organisational behaviour are to depict, understand, predict and control.
Cardinal forces impacting organisational behaviour are people, construction, engineering and environment.
Human Relations Management
Originally Human Relations ( or HR ) was initiated by Elton Mayo as a consequence of Hawthorne experiments in which Mayo argued stand foring the inadequacy of economic inducements of workers. After the Hawthorne experiment, Mayo disputed that the workplace environment was excessively economic and it failed to run into the societal and emotional demands of workers that resulted in unsure labour dealingss taking to overall inefficiency. The survey of Hawthorne experiments and human dealingss made possible for Mayo to do certain illations on how directors should act in an organisation. Through the development of human dealingss Mayo believed that:
Directors should be cognizant of these ‘social demands ‘ and cater for them to do certain that employees collaborate with the organisation officially instead than working against it.
Individual workers can non be treated in isolation, but must be treated as members of the group.
Good working conditions and pecuniary inducements are non every bit of import as the demand of belonging to a group.
Informal groups formed at work strongly act upon the behaviour of those workers in a group.
The classical school of direction established by Fredrick Taylor and Henri Fayol spotlighted on rules of direction, scientific choice and preparation, wage etc the human dealingss method stressed behavioural issues such as occupation satisfaction, group norms, supervisory manner.
Theory X and Theory Y
These are concerned with two sets of belief about human behaviour and nature that are concerned with the pattern of direction. Theory X tells a negative of human nature and theory Y represents positive position of human nature.
In 1950s, Douglas McGregor ( 1906-1964 ) , a psychologist who taught at MIT, disparaged both the classical and human dealingss schools as insufficient in practical footings. He thought that theories followed by both the schools showed a negative position of human nature and that another theory with different premises was required.
McGregor drew upon the work of Abraham Maslow ( 1908-1970 ) to explicate why Theory X premises led to uneffective direction. Maslow argued against Maslow ‘s proposition that demands are arranged in degrees in that safety and physical demands at the underside because he believed that most employees already had their physical and safety demands met and direction demands to supply the upper needs to be met in the workplace. McGregor believed that theory Y premises would do direction more effectual. He stated different attacks like decentalisation of determination doing authorization, deputation and participative direction.
Scientific direction gave emphasis to concern for undertaking ( end product ) i.e. it regarded a basic unit as single worker of the organisation.
While the Human dealingss direction emphasis on demand for relationships ( people ) i.e. informal group was the footing of the organisation.
In instance of scientific direction, the function of a leader is to put down work standards and use them on workers and the leader is considered as a symbol of high authorization. In Human dealingss direction, the work of a leader is to ease cooperation and coordination among the employees while giving chances and aid for their ‘personal growing and development ‘ . The leader is besides to be seen as an ‘ agent for intra and inter group communicating ”
‘Informal groups ‘ were avoided by Taylorism whereas human dealingss motion supported their extension. This is because Taylorism showed a worker as mechanical, inactive, and a basic unit of the organisation whereas the human dealingss motion believed that the continuation of such informal groups would supply the cooperation and communicating among members and would help in accomplishing organisational ends.
Workers under scientific direction are treated as ‘human machines ‘ . ‘Differential system ‘ is used for actuating them. Workers contentment is the chief purpose of human relation direction. Harmonizing to human dealingss direction, satisfied workers are charged workers and hence effectual workers.
Harmonizing to Taylor, The ‘Rule of Thumb ‘ method of quantify work, failure on the portion of direction in turn toing the workers to full efficiency, and workers curb on end product in order to protect their involvements were seen as trouble to maximal productiveness. Harmonizing to Mayo, to achieve maximal productiveness, the organisation must seek to understand and esteem the emotions, sense of acknowledgment and satisfaction of the workers non-monetary demands.
Though both, the scientific school of idea and the behaviorist/human dealingss school of idea were so different from each other in their attack, they shared a common end – ‘increased productiveness ‘ . Both strive for organisational excellence through increased efficiency. This excellence can be achieved in either of the two ways or both the ways. Therefore, scientific direction and human dealingss direction can be portrayed as complimentary or none is superior to the other.