It is defined in term of gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) and market production. It is increased the figure of goods and services produced by an economic system in defined clip period.
Motorway web of any state is of critical importance of its economic development and consequence positive on different Fieldss of economic system. An economic system seems to developed and industrialise if widespread conveyance system.
It is highly hard to set the economic system on the high rapid way without an efficient conveyance system. An efficient communicating system is indispensable for trade, national commercialism and integrating. Pakistan ‘s economic development depends upon betterments and modernisation of its conveyance system.In 1947 depends on roads was merely 8 % , now it is more than 96 % of inland cargo and 92 % of rider traffic. Now it is a anchor of Pakistani ‘s economic system.Motorway boost Pakistan economic systemMotorway addition positive consequence on production, Supply and employmentFiscal impact of expresswayMotorway and land usageMotorway rapid entree to labor, instruction, Health.Motorway conveyance and poornessMotorway and environment
National Highway Authority ( NHA )
It is responsible for the development and care of national main roads and expresswaies. The entire length of roads under the NHA is 12000 which accounts 4 % of the full route web and take 80 % of Pakistan ‘s commercial traffic.
Road denseness is an index of development. Current route denseness is 0.32 km/km2, which is much less even from regional criterion.
The authorities wants to convey dual figure of 0.64 km/km2. Pakistan ‘s current route web is now more than 260000 kilometer.Pakistan ‘s expresswaies are portion of Pakistan ‘s “ National Trade Corridor Project ” , which aims to associate Pakistan ‘s three Arabian Sea ports ( Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port ) to the remainder of the state and farther with Afghanistan, Iran, India, Central Asia and China.
M-1 Motorway Islamabad to Peshawar
Pakistan ‘s expressway ( M-1 ) 155 km 6-lane, associating Peshawar, Charsada, Noshera, Sawabi, Attock, Burhan, Hasanabadal to Islamabad capital of Pakistan, has been operational since 30 October 2007. It has become a critical nexus to Afghanistan and Central Asia and is expected to take much traffic off the extremely used N5. It is safe manner of NATO supply line to Afghanistan. It is the most beautiful expressway of Pakistan traversing river Sindh and river Kabil.
M-2 Motorway Islamabad to Lahore
Pakistan ‘s first expressway, the 367 km 6-lane M-2, linking the Pakistan capital Islamabad and Lahore, was constructed by South Korea ‘s Daewoo Corporation and was inaugurated in November 1997 in Nawaz Sharif Govt and was the first expressway to be built in South Asia. It is strategic route during war utilizing as exigency run manner.
The M-2 is a expressway in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. It is 367 kilometer long and connects Lahore with Islamabad. It passes through Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Khanqah Dogran, Kot Sarwar, Pindi Bhattian, Sial Morr, Kot Momin, Salem, Lilla, Kallar Kahar, Balksar, and Chakri before stoping merely outside the duplicate metropoliss Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It so continues on to finally go the M1 expressway associating the duplicate metropoliss with Peshawar.
The M-2 crosses the junction of the M3 ( to Faisalabad ) at Pindi Bhattian. It has connected best topographic points for tourers like Hiran Minar, Waris Shah Tomb, Khewara mine, salt scope, Citric Fieldss, Rice Fieldss and Kalar Kahar Jheel.
M-3 Motorway Pindi Bhatian to Faisalabad
Pakistan expressway ( M-3 ) , the 54 kilometers 4-lane associating the Pindi Bhattian Arch span Junction on the M-2 with Faisalabad. Initially, it was planned to hold 6-lanes, nevertheless, due to the deficit of financess, it was decided to cut down the figure of lanes to 4 with an option to upgrade it to 6-lanes in future. Construction of the M-3 began in May 2002 and it was completed in front of agenda in September 2003 at a cost of Rs 5.3 billion.
It was inaugurated and opened for traffic on 2 October 2003. Now industrial Area of Punjab Govt is being constructed on Sahinwala interchange.
( M-4 ) Motorway Faisalabad to Multan
It has length of 233 km 4-lane, began on 19 August 2009 with interrupting ceremonial performed by Pakistan ‘s Prime Minister, Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani. There is working on advancement at two buildings Phase Faisalabad to Gojra and Khanewal to Multan. It will associate Multan with the M-3 Motorway at Faisalabad. The M4 will get down Faisalabad interchange at the Sargodha Road of Faisalabad.
It will go on on a southwest class linking the metropoliss of Faisalabad, Jhang, Gojra, Toba Tek Singh, Shorkot, Khanewal and Multan. Once at Khanewal, it will unify onto the N5 temporarily until the M5 is complete.. The M4 will be constructed in four phases ( I ) Faisalabad-Gojra ( 58A kilometer ) , ( two ) Gojra-Shorkot ( 61A kilometer ) , ( three ) Shorkot-Din Pur-Khanewal ( 65A kilometer ) and ( four ) Khanewal-Multan ( 65A kilometer ) , whereas two big Bridgess will be constructed on the River Ravi and Shadhnai Channel. Estimated cost is USD 601 million.
M-5 Motorway Multan to Dera Khazi Khan
It is a planned 4 lane expressway that will associate Multan with Dera Ghazi Khan. It will be constructed after the completion of the Faisalabad Multan ( M-4 ) Motorway.
M-6 Motorway Dera Ghazi Khan to Ratodero
It is a planned 4 lane expressway that will associate Dera Ghazi Khan with Ratodero.
It will be constructed after the completion of the Multan to Dera Khazi Khan ( M-5 ) Motorway.
M-8 Motorway Ratodero To Gawader
The 892 km 4-lane M-8 is under-construction in Sindh and Balochistan states. Initially, it will hold 2 lanes with a farther 2 lanes planned. The 4 lane expressway will be upgradable to 6 lanes. Once completed it will straight associate the larboard metropolis of Gwadar with the remainder of Pakistan ‘s expressway web at Ratodero where it will associate up with the M-6 Dera Ghazi Khan-Ratodero Motorway.
M-9 Motorway Haiderabad to Karachi
Hyderabad-Karachi “ Super Highway ” is in the procedure of being upgraded into a 6-lane access-controlled expressway designated the “ M-9 ” . Expression of Interest ( EOI ) was invited by the National Highway Authority ( NHA ) in May 2011.
The NHA awarded the Rs. 24.93 billion contract to the Malayan building company on Built Operate Transfer ( BOT ) footing in January 2012. The proposed 136-km long expressway will be completed in three old ages.
Patroling and enforcement
National Highways and Motorway Police ( NH & A ; MP ) is responsible for enforcement of traffic regulations and safety steps, security and free flow of traffic on the Pakistan Motorway web. The NH & A ; MP use heavy landrovers, autos and heavy minibikes for patrolling and aid intents and utilizations twenty-four hours and dark vision velocity cameras for implementing velocity bounds. It is friendly and corruptness free constabulary in Pakistan.
Significance OF TRANSPORTATION AND ITS SENERIO:
Road conveyance is the anchor of Pakistan ‘s conveyance system. The 9,574 kilometers long National Highway and Motorway web, which is 3.65 per centum of the entire route web, carries 80 per centum of Pakistan ‘s entire traffic.
Over the past 10 old ages, route traffic, both rider and cargo, has grown significantly faster than the national economic system. Presently, it is accounting for 91 per centum of national rider traffic and 96 per centum of cargo.Port traffic in Pakistan grows at 8 per centum yearly in recent old ages. Two major ports, Port Karachi and Port Qasim, handle 95 per centum of all international trade. Port Gwadar, which was inaugurated in March 2007 and is being operated by Singapore Port Authority, is taking to develop into a cardinal energy port in the part. 14 dry ports cater to high value external trade.Pakistan Railways ( PR ) has a wide gage system ( with a little web of metre gage in the South East ) .
The web consists of the chief North – South corridor, linking the Karachi ports to the primary production and population centres in Pakistan. The path is in good status with an axle-load of 23 dozenss and upper limit permitted velocities of 100/110 kilometers per hours.There are 36 operational airdromes. Karachi is Pakistan ‘s chief airdrome but important degrees of both domestic and international lading are besides handled at Islamabad and Lahore. Pakistan International Airlines ( PIA ) , the major public sector air hose, though confronting the competition from a few private air hoses, carries about 70 per centum of domestic riders and about all domestic cargo traffic.The transit sector histories for about 10.5 per centum of the state ‘s GDP and 27.4 per centum of Gross Fixed Capital Formation ( GFCF ) in FY06.
It provides over 6 per centum of employment in the state and receives 12 to 16 per centum of the one-year Federal Public Sector Development Program ( PSDP ) . Government bureaus dominate the sector.Although the sector is functional, its inefficiencies with long waiting and going times, high costs, and low dependability are dragging the state ‘s economic growing. These factors besides cut down the fight of the state ‘s exports, increase the cost of making concern in Pakistan, and constrain Pakistan ‘s ability to incorporate into planetary supply ironss which require just-in-time bringing.
The hapless public presentation of the sector is estimated to be the economic system 4-6 per centum of GDP each twelvemonth.RoadssOver half the national main roads web is in hapless status, and the route safety record is hapless. The state ‘s truck fleet is largely made up of obsolete, underpowered, and fouling vehicles, and trucks are frequently grossly overloaded. Truck runing velocities on the chief corridors are merely 40 – 50 kilometers per hour for container traffic, half of the truck speeds in Europe. For trucks transporting majority ladings, the journeys take 3-4 times longer than in Europe. Bridge between South Asia and South West Asia ; Iran and Afghanistan are energy abundant while India and China are missing of. China finds manner to Indian ocean and Arabian Sea through Korakaram.
China with its fastest economic growing rate of 9 % ; is developing its southern states because its ain port is 4500 kilometer off from Sinkiang but Gawader is 2500km off. Pakistan offers to CARs the shortest path of 2600 kilometer as compared to Iran ( 4500 kilometer ) or Turkey ( 5000 kilometer ) . Land locked Afganistan now at the stage of Reconstruction, finds its ways through Pakistan. Gawader port with its deep Waterss attracts the trade ships of China, CARs and South East Asiatic Countries.
Hypothesis of the survey:
The research survey will analyze the impact of expresswaies on Pakistan Economy.
I will depict the relationship between expressway and economic system.H1: There will be positive impact of expressway on Pakistan Economy which is premise of proposal.H2: There will be negative impact of expressway on Pakistan economic system which is against of H1.H3: There will be effectual relationship of expressway with Pakistan economic system.H4: There will be uneffective relationship of expresswaies with Pakistan economic system.
Premise OF STUDY
Time restraints of the semester necessitate less clip than may be ideal for an ethnographic survey.
By being in the organisation for merely four hours a hebdomad for five hebdomads, there are bound to be facets of leading pattern, organisational civilization and squad communicating that will non be revealed during my observations. Bing an foreigner may besides restrict what is revealed to me. The squad members may be guarded in their conversations around me, particularly in my initial observations. [ Describe conditions beyond your control that topographic point limitations on what you can make and the decisions you may be able to pull ]
I am taking non to detect multiple squads, even though such comparings might be valuable, in order to let more deepness of understanding sing the group on which I will concentrate. Additionally, I will non utilize structured interviews in order to minimise my obtrusiveness and my influence on the squad members. [ Describe the boundaries of the survey that you determine ]
Aim OF STUDY
There will be following chief aim of my research.Economic growingPrivate Sector DevelopmentRegional CooperateSocial growingDescription The overall aim of the survey will be to supply the Government with a elaborate execution program for the expressway corridors, and to fix the highest precedence undertaking ready for award and execution utilizing an appropriate public-private partnership theoretical account.
( I ) Pakistan route sector ; ( two ) the undertaking readying stage to fix a undertaking for the selected expressway nexus ; and ( three ) the procurement readying stage to fix necessary paperss and requirements for procurement procedure. Linkage to Country/ Regional Strategy to cut down logistics cost and increase the state ‘s planetary fight. The overall aim of the route web is to cut down logistics costs in Pakistan through the publicity of ( I ) more efficient logistics in the production sector, ( two ) more efficiency in the conveyance sector, ( three ) the development of private sector logistics concerns, ( four ) better facilitation for international trade, and ( V ) better human resource development.Within the route subsector, the Government intends to prosecute its overall end of cut downing logistics costs and keeping or increasing the state ‘s regional fight chiefly within the model of these five countries. A figure of challenges and restraints must be overcome to accomplish this end within a sensible period, including ( I ) developing a loosely based funding program that reaches good beyond the dependance on normal annual budget allotments ; and ( two ) doing important alterations to Pakistan ‘s legal and contractual models to supply the environment necessity for the debut of advanced public private partnerships.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Considerable advancement has been made in the conveyance and communicating sector during the current financial twelvemonth.
During July-March 1999-2000, the entire length of roads in the state was 249,959 kilometers, including 138,726 Km of high type and 111,233 kilometers of low type. Entire figure of motor vehicles on roads stood at 4.085 million during the same period. The building work on Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway which started in 1998, is expected to be completed with the cost of Rs.
26 billion by December 200:1. Pakistan Railways web consists of 7,791 path kilometer during July-March, 1999-2000. Its major assets include 582 engines, 2,029 rider managers and 22,247 cargo waggons. During 1999-2000 ( July-March ) it carried 49.2 million riders and 3.
8 million dozenss cargo and its gross net incomes stood at Rs.7,208 million. The web of Pakistan International Airlines covers 37 international finishs and 35 domestic Stationss covering about all parts of the state.Its fleet consists ‘ of 48 aircrafts of varied types. Soon, three.private air hoses i.e.
Shaheen Air International, Bhoja Air Line and Aero Asia are runing on local and international paths, while the 4th private sector air hose — Safe Air International is runing on domestic paths merely. The state has two major sea ports viz. , Karachi Sea Port and Port Qasim. Beside, two Fish Harbour-Cum-Mini Ports are being developed at Gawadur and Keti Bunder. The Karachi Port has handled 18.
0 million dozenss of lading during July-March, 1999-2000, compared with 1.7.6 million dozenss of lading during the corresponding period of last twelvemonth.Pakistan is now connected with most of the states of the universe through international gateway exchanges. Value added services such as cyberspace, E-mail, cellular Mobile telephone, optical fibre system, card ‘ wage phone, paging services etc. are now available in the state which are supplying advanced and modern services to the consumers. At present, approximately 21,000 clients are connected through cyberspace, whereas the entire figure of cyberspace users in Pakistan upto March, 2000 are 120,000. There are more than 3.
8 million telephone lines, out of which about 3.03 million lines are connected to the clients, 2,663 telephone exchanges, 1,362 NWD exchanges, 10,256 VHF PCOs, 393 telegraph offices and 112 client service Centres are working in the state. The estimated figure of Television and VCR sets in the state as on June 30, 1999 were 3.035 million and 0.136 million severally. As on March 31, 2000, the Television and VCR sets are estimated to be 3.150 million and 0.136 million severally.
Pakistan is an emerging market for cars and automotive parts offers huge concern and investing chances. The entire part of Auto industry to GDP in 2007 is 2.8 % which is likely to increase up to 5.6 % in the following 5 old ages. Auto sector soon, contributes 16 % to the fabrication sector which besides is expected to increase 25 % in the following 7 old ages.Pakistan, with 155 million people, has a moderately developed conveyance substructure. Road conveyance is the anchor of Pakistan ‘s conveyance system.
The 9,574 kilometers long National Highway and Motorway web, which is 3.65 per centum of the entire route web, carries 80 per centum of Pakistan ‘s entire traffic. Over the past 10 old ages, route traffic, both rider and cargo, has grown significantly faster than the national economic system. Presently, it is accounting for 91 per centum of national rider traffic and 96 per centum of cargo.Port traffic in Pakistan grows at 8 per centum yearly in recent old ages. Two major ports, Port Karachi and Port Qasim, handle 95 per centum of all international trade. Port Gwadar, which was inaugurated in March 2007 and is being operated by Singapore Port Authority, is taking to develop into a cardinal energy port in the part.
14 dry ports cater to high value external trade.Pakistan Railways ( PR ) has a wide gage system ( with a little web of metre gage in the South East ) . The web consists of the chief North – South corridor, linking the Karachi ports to the primary production and population centres in Pakistan.
The path is in good status with an axle-load of 23 dozenss and upper limit permitted velocities of 100/110 kilometers per hours.There are 36 operational airdromes. Karachi is Pakistan ‘s chief airdrome but important degrees of both domestic and international lading are besides handled at Islamabad and Lahore.
Pakistan International Airlines ( PIA ) , the major public sector air hose, though confronting the competition from a few private air hoses, carries about 70 per centum of domestic riders and about all domestic cargo traffic.The transit sector histories for about 10.5 per centum of the state ‘s GDP and 27.4 per centum of Gross Fixed Capital Formation ( GFCF ) in FY06. It provides over 6 per centum of employment in the state and receives 12 to 16 per centum of the one-year Federal Public Sector Development Program ( PSDP ) . Government bureaus dominate the sector.Although the sector is functional, its inefficiencies with long waiting and going times, high costs, and low dependability are dragging the state ‘s economic growing. These factors besides cut down the fight of the state ‘s exports, increase the cost of making concern in Pakistan, and constrain Pakistan ‘s ability to incorporate into planetary supply ironss which require just-in-time bringing.
The hapless public presentation of the sector is estimated to be the economic system 4-6 per centum of GDP each twelvemonth.
This presents an overview of the methods to utilize in the research. It shows the research design, population, sample and trying techniques, informations aggregation and analysis.
The survey will affect the measuring the function of expresswaies in the Pakistan economic system. It will be consequence at regional states like China, Central Asia, Afghanistan and India. Consequently, the research will be designed to accomplish the aims set out by research.
The conveyance sector of Pakistan is playing an of import function in the economic system. The ministry of communicating is chief commanding authorization on expresswaies for planning and building. The ministry of communicating including their Departments like National Highways & A ; motorway constabularies, National Highway authorization and Transport research centre indispensable for operational procedure.
The targeted population for the survey therefore includes the followersMinistry of communicating ( FEDRAL )National Highway authorization ( NHA )National Highways & A ; Motorways constabularies ( NH & A ; MP )National conveyance research centre ( NTRC )National trade corridor betterment plan ( NTCIP )Frontier works organisation ( FWO )The Main metropoliss ( Population ) liked with expresswaiesSampleThe research belongs to impact of all expresswaies of Pakistan but in sample I will discourse merely Lahore Islamabad Motorway ( M-2 ) Merely such section belonging to M-2 will be considered. The questionnaire and day of the month will be collected merely for M-2.
Sampling and Sampling Technique
It obvious from the population above that a nose count is non executable in this survey. Accordingly, I shall follow the study type of research in which a sample from the mark population will be used for the survey. In entire, a sample of 150 elements will be selected from a targeted population of 300.
Detailss of the sample are as follows:20 officers and functionary from NHA20 officers and staff from NH & A ; MP30 transporters and 20 riders20 economic system experts & A ; 20 officers be aftering section40 citizens near expresswayThe research survey will follow a multistage stratified trying method to choose elements. First, theA population will be divided into officers and functionaries. Following, It will be grouped into Ministries, Departments and Agencies and into Metropolitan, Municipal and Districts.
This will guarantee a just representation of each group of establishments since theirA operations are significantly different.
The focal point of survey is on attitudes and perceptual experience and the importance of primary informations can non beover-emphasised. However, secondary informations will besides be collected to augment the surveies. Before the existent informations collect the research worker will roll up introductory missive from the School ofA Business of the University of Cape Coast to the sampled establishments.
The initial visit to the selected establishments will hence be to present himself, familiarise himself with those establishments every bit good as seek their consent for the survey.
Data aggregation instrument
The research worker will roll up informations by administrating a questionnaire. The questionnaire will unstructured inquiries, dwelling of about 20 inquiries divided into three subdivisions ‘A ‘ , ‘B ‘ , and ‘C ‘ . Section ‘A ‘ will dwell of seven inquiries seeking to reply the first research inquiry.
Section ‘B ‘ will dwell of six inquiries covering the 2nd research inquiry where as Section ‘C ‘ will dwell of inquiries to prove the hypothesis and besides reply the 3rd research inquiry.Table 1:SectionResearch QuestionFact-finding QuestionsA
Sample Investigative QuestionsSectionResearch QuestionInvestigative Questions’A ‘
What history for the lowsupport for Internal Audit byA public sector directors?
Are you cognizant of the function of the Internal AuditorA in you administration?
How of import do you believe is the function of theInternal Auditor to your administration?
In your position, is the Head of Internal Audit placedappropriately on the organizational chart? ‘B ‘
What actions are necessary toget the support ofA direction of internalauditing in the populace sector?
By and large, how will you rank the relevancy ofA Internal Audit in your administration?
What grounds account for your reply above?
What do you see the three most importantactions needed to advance Internal Auditing inthe populace sector? ‘C ‘
Is there a nexus between thequality of service the InternalAuditor provides for hisorganisation and the attitudeof directors towards theInternal Audit map?
What do you see to be the highest achieve ofA your internal audit section?
Would hold to the statement that one’sA perceptual experience of the Internal Auditor is influenced byhow they perceive his function in the company?
Will your attitude towards Internal Audit bedifferent if they help you accomplish your aims?Research proposal – SB/MAC/08/0005Page 10
Most of the structured inquiries will be the close-ended type and respondents willbe asked to tag the appropriate box fiting the right reply. Otherquestions, nevertheless, will necessitate respondents to give sentiments.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
After analytical survey maintaining in position their consequences, treatments will be suggested to work out the job for this intent besides policy deductions will be discussed. This survey will be utile for the research on the subject and will supply guideline for contriver and policy shaper.
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1997, The costs and benefits of induced traffic on the Sydney Harbour Tunnel and Gore Hill Freeway. Masters Dissertation. University of New England, Armidale.The Institute of Internal Auditors ( the IIA ) . ( 2007 ) , The Professional Practices Framework. Florida, U.S. : The IIA Research Foundation.
B. , Cooper, D.R. , and Schindler, P.S. ( 2005 ) A Business Research Methods, Maidenhead, McGraw-Hill