The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Indole Butyric Acid
(IBA) on pomegranate propagation through stem cuttings. The experiment was
carried out under the poly-house condition at horticulture farm of Agricultural
Research Station, Pakhribas. The experiment comprised of five levels of IBA (0,
3000, 6000, 9000, 12000ppm) concentrations for treating hardwood stem cutting
of pomegranate crop. During the study period, data on success percentage of the
cuttings, number of roots, length of roots, fresh and dry weight of the roots were
recorded. The concentration of the IBA played a role in the success in rooting
of the hardwood cuttings. The maximum number of sprouts per cuttings (4.1), number
of roots per cutting (14.92), fresh weight of roots (1.04g) dry weight of roots
per cutting (0.68g) was observed from the treatment with 9000ppm concentrations
of IBA while the length of root (10.65cm) from the treatment with 12000ppm
concentration of IBA. The experiment showed that 9000ppm concentration of IBA was
better among the other treatments as it gave 67.5 per cent success in rooting
of the hardwood cuttings of pomegranate crop.

 

 

Key words: concentration, cutting, hardwood, pomegranate,
propagation

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Introduction

 

Pomegranate (Punica
granatum L.) is a well-known table fruit of tropical and subtropical
regions of the world. It belongs to the Punicaceae family with two species
namely: Punica granatum L. and P. protopunica Balf.  The tissues of pomegranate fruit, flowers,
bark and leaves contain bioactive phytochemicals that are antimicrobial, reduce
blood pressure and act against serious diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Even
juice works as medicines for curing of dyspepsia Negi et al., 2003. For
healing of diarrhoea and dysentery, there is a practice of use of seeds, bark
and rind of the fruits.

 

Pomegranate can be
grown from terai to mid hills region of Nepal. The crop shades its leaves and
acts as deciduous nature while grown in sub-tropical region while, evergreen in
nature in tropical ie. terai region. It grows best in hot dry summer and cold
winter. Propagation by seeds as well as cutting are the usual practice of
propagation while, grafting and layering are also practiced for propagation
Hartmann et al., 1997. Seed as a propagation is not used for establishing the
orchard commercially. Propagation from seed takes longer time for fruiting as
well may not be true to the type. Compared to the seed; saplings produced from
cuttings produce true to the type to parents in both vegetative and
reproductive traits. It broadly favours cutting to be the best suited method of
propagation in pomegranate Saroj et al., 2008.

 

Pomegranate can
easily root from the cuttings without any treatments as auxins. It has been
reported that the exogeneous application of auxins favours success of rooting
in cuttings. Auxins helps in induction of roots from cuttings. It is reported
that the rooting percentage is increased by three folds in pomegranate crop
when treated with auxins (Saroj et al., 2008 and Polat and Caliskan,
2009). Multiplication of the pomegranate cuttings depends on concentrations of
IBA, type of cuttings and even the media used for rooting of cuttings (Singh,
2017b). Thus, the objective of the work was to study the rooting capacity of
pomegranate in different concentrations of IBA.

 

Materials and
methods

 

The experiment
was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Pakhribas, Dhankuta during February
to June 2017. The experiment was set-up under the poly-house structure constructed
within the nursery area of horticulture farm. The study was aimed to find the effect
of different concentrations of IBA on success of rooting of hardwood cutting of
pomegranate. A total of four concentrations of IBA (3000, 6000, 9000, 12000ppm)
and a control (without treatment) were placed for evaluation. The hardwood cuttings
of length 20-25 cm were taken from the pomegranate plant for the experiment
purpose. The proximal ends of the prepared cuttings were dipped for 10 seconds
to each IBA concentrations and in water for control as treatment before they
were placed in the experiment plot. The cuttings were placed 8cm deep in the
poly-bags filled with two parts of virgin forest soil and one part of well
decomposed farm yard manure.

 

The response to
rooting of the hardwood cuttings of pomegranate to IBA concentrations were
recorded for the success percentage of the cuttings, number of roots per
cutting, root length, fresh and dry weight of roots per cuttings. Randomized
Complete Block Design (RCBD) was the design used where; each treatment was
replicated four times. A total of 20 hard wood cuttings of pomegranate were
placed in each treatment. Data was analyzed using Gen STAT and the differences
between the means were compared by using the least significant difference at p <0.05.   Result and discussion   The effect of IBA concentrations on success and vegetative performance of hardwood cuttings of pomegranate are presented in Table 1. According the result, number of sprouts per cuttings is highly significant different among the concentrations of IBA while success percentage of cuttings, number of roots per cuttings and length of roots per cuttings is significant difference. The hardwood cuttings treated with 9000ppm IBA had a highest success percentage (67.50) followed by 12000ppm IBA (58.3) and the least (49.2) percentage was observed from control. The findings on Bougainvillea by Bose et al. (1968) also reported the similar result in success percentage of cuttings. The maximum number of sprouts per cuttings (4.1) was observed in the treatment 9000ppm IBA and minimum (2.7) in 3000ppm IBA. Singh 2017b has also reported maximum number of sprouts (7.33) from a treatment of 5000ppm of IBA. Pratima and Rana 2011 have also reported the similar type of result for sprouting in the cuttings. The maximum number of roots per cuttings (14.92) was recorded for 9000ppm of IBA followed by 12000ppm of IBA (11.55). The result agreed with the findings of Koyunce and Senel, 2003. The maximum average length of root (10.65cm) was recorded for 12000ppm of IBA followed by 9000ppm of IBA (8.38cm) and the minimum (6.78cm) from 3000ppm of IBA treatment.   Table 1. Effect of IBA concentrations on success and vegetative performance of hardwood cuttings of Pomegranate   Treatments Success percentage of cuttings Number of sprouts per cuttings Number of roots per cuttings Length of roots (cm) 3000ppm IBA 51.7 2.7 10.17 6.78 6000ppm IBA 52.5 2.98 10.7 8.03 9000ppm IBA 67.5 4.1 14.92 8.38 12000ppm IBA 58.3 3.32 11.55 10.65 Control 49.2 2.8 9.42 7.93 Mean 55.80 3.18 11.35 8.35 F-test * ** * * LSD 10.94 0.63 3.31 1.99 CV% 12.7 13.00 19.00 15.50   The Figure 1 shows the diameter of the roots, fresh and dry weight of the roots of hardwood cuttings of pomegranate crop. The maximum diameter of the roots (4.13 mm) was observed in 6000ppm of IBA treatment followed by 9000ppm of IBA with (4.10 mm). This finding agrees with the findings of Mahros (2002) in Bougainvillea. The fresh and dry weight of the roots per cuttings was recorded maximum under 9000ppm of IBA with (1.04g) and (0.68g) respectively. The minimum fresh weight of the roots per cuttings (0.96g) and dry weight of the roots per cutting (0.60g) was recorded in control.  Mahros, 2002 and Kaur and Kaur, 2016 have also reported the similar result with respect to the fresh and dry weight of the roots of the cuttings. Owais, 2010 has also reported the best concentration of IBA for favourable rooting of the cuttings of pomegranate to be 6000 to 9000ppm.   Figure 1. Effect of IBA on diameter of root, fresh weight of root and dry weight of root in pomegranate cuttings     Conclusion   The present study signified the difference in the success of the rooting of the hard wood cuttings of pomegranate crop when treated with different concentrations of indole butyric acid (IBA). Among the four concentrations of IBA and a control, IBA with a concentration of 9000ppm showed the best performance. The success percentage of the cuttings, number of sprouts per cuttings, number of roots per cuttings, fresh weight of the roots and dry weight of the roots were recorded maximum in the treatment with 9000ppm concentration of IBA.  Hence, it can be concluded that, the treatment with 9000ppm concentration of IBA is better for rooting of hard wood cutting of pomegranate crop.

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