The menopause is
an event that occurs in the life of every women.it occurs in the midlife of
women, due to deficiency of estrogen hormone or progesterone. it is the cease
or end of menstruation and fertility. It is a change women experience after the
end of menstruation. The change occurs when the women reaches at the age of 40
or 50 and has not menstruated for twelve months. The periods can become
unbalanced, some becoming longer and some becoming shorter. A woman is in perimenopause until she has not menstruated
for 12 months. There are two types of menopause;
It is a phase nearby menopause. Peri-menopause means “around the menopause” It
include 12 months to pass before we can say that menopause has occur.It also
includes the time period when the symptoms of menopause start to appear. During
perimenopause a women may start experiencing symptoms like hot flushes, change
in mood and sleep, or other symptoms for a year before her periods start to
change. Hormone fluctuations can become more obvious during peri-menopause. Its
onset is 40-50.
is a state when a women have not experience menstruation for a year. It is
phase when periods totally ends. Its onset is 40s and late 60s.
Different studies conducted on menopause describe Most
of the women face psychological distress and changes because of the menopause.
The basic purpose of this study is to investigate the association between
psychological conflicts,low level of self-respect, oxidative stress ,anxiety ,depression
and life quality of women with post-menopause. This study used cross-sectional
method. 101 women with premenopause and 101 women with post menopause using
scales of zung self-rating depression and anxiety and coppersmith self-esteem
inventory and World Health Association Quality of life brief.
After applying the
scales results have been shown that life quality of post-menopausal women is
lower than premenopausal women and psychological conflicts, oxidative stress,
depression and anxiety is higher in women with post menopause.