The fundamental principle of lean manufacture iseliminating waste from the manufacturing process Taiichi Ohno was a Japanese industrialengineer and business man who used three Japanese words to describe waste; Mura, Muri and Muda.

Mura is unevenness, Muri isoverburden or unreasonable demands and Muda is the non-value adding actionswithin processes (Liker, 2004). Ultimately,customers want high quality products that are delivered on time and at theright price. By eliminating waste in production processes, high-qualityproducts can be achieved (Krafcik, 1988). Muri underlies Muda and Mura, the causesof Muri (overburden) include:·       Workingon processes that you’re not trained in·       Poorlylaid out work environments·       Clutteredworkplaces·       Unclearinstructions·       Lackof proper tools and equipment/ unreliable equipment·       Fluctuatingdemand ·       Unreliableprocesses·       PoorcommunicationThe company’s profit is the selling price minus thecosts associated with making the product.

The selling price is very muchdictated by the market, if the company charges too much then customers willseek the product elsewhere, and sometimes if you charge too little there ispotential to lose out on customers as they may perceive that the product is oflow standard (Ohno, 1988).Therefore, we only improve profits by reducingcosts; this means the removal of waste from all processes. Mura, Muri and Muda’wastes’ were categorised into seven areas;  Overproduction; Over producing product beyond what the customer has ordered. Inventory; the work in progress (WIP) and stocks of finished goods and raw materials that a company holds.

Waiting; the act of waiting for a machine to finish, for product to arrive, or any other cause. Motion; the physical movement of a person or machine whilst conducting an operation. Transport; the movement of product between operations, and locations. Reworks/Defects; product rejects and rework within your processes. Over-processing; conducting operations beyond those that customer requires.

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