emergence of pop art indicated a significant change in modern art. Instead of
focusing on themes like classical antiquity, morality, and myth of the ‘high
art’, pop art primarily integrated the elements of
popular culture (Osterwold 2003). This meant that any mundane or commonplace
materials and objects could be incorporated into the artworks, by celebrating
the subjects of everyday life, Pop art elevated popular culture into the same
level as traditional fine art. Pop art was represented by very different styles
but had common attributes such mass-media, mass-culture and mass-production.
Art is an abbreviation for “Popular Art”.
In the article “The Arts and the Mass Media” written by the British
critic Lawrence Alloway in 1958 was when
the expression Pop Art appeared in print for the very first time according to
Alloway himself (Myers, 2011). It broke through in the early 1960s, when
magazines like Time, Life and Newsweek published cover articles in its
distinctive style. Easily identifiable by noticeably condensed pictures of
popular themes, it give the impression of an attack on the values of modern
painting, and encompassed abstract ideas as a representation of universal
realities and individualistic means of expression.
need for marketing and advertising platforms developed by modernists was
recognised to have contributed to its development that primarily incorporated
these aspects of the popular culture (Drennen, 1993).
movement flourished in the period of unprecedented economic prosperity whose
manifestation was demonstrated in the pop artistic upheaval. Although many of
the artists associated with the movement are from New York (e.g. James
Rosenquist, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Claes Oldenburg), many of the
artists who would popularise the style were drawn across the world (Lüthy,
2002). Through the creation of sculptures, images and paintings from mass
culture objects and mass media stars, the pop art movement aimed at breaking a
boundary between ‘low’
art. The resurgence of printed imagery in the US and Europe can also
be seen to have coincided with the movement’s
development (Lüthy, 2002).
art was also equally a response to Abstract Expressionism, which was perceived
as snobbish and detached, as it was a merriment of the postwar consumer nation.
Abstract expressionism searched for trauma in the soul, pop primarily focused
on the mediated world through objects like cartoons and aspects of the
contemporary such as advertisement and (primarily) imagery at large (Slowinska
2014). Abstract expressionist snobbery is illustrated by the story of art
dealer Sidney Janis who, when he broadened his taste to include pop art, found
that all of the Abstract Expressionists that used to show with him bar Willem
de Kooning fled to other galleries (Shanes, 2009).
art was created using techniques typically common in industry and mass
production. Warhol started creating silkscreens, and then started to reduce
hands on work by making other people paint for him in his studio, appropriately
named “The Factory.” Likewise, Oldenburg dismissed his early artwork
and shows, to make huge sculptures of cake slices, lipsticks, and clothespins.
Most important contribution to the creation of art was the machine-like
production, the possibility to consume it quickly. It was created to be bought
and then recreated, made to fill up space and connect the art world with the
world we live in. Retrospectively there now appears to be widespread
identification of 1960s American pop art with post-modernism (Harrison, 2001).