Operations Management is a technique or method by and large involved in design and direction procedure in the country of Industrial Management. There are different methods in Operations Management that assorted organisations employ for their development. For the intent of this exercising, two methods of Operations Management viz. Benchmarking and Forecasting have been selected for presentation. Each method has been presented in item including the definition, procedure, types, advantages and disadvantages. A instance survey has besides been included for each method.


Man has invented so much for his life get downing with nutrient, vesture and shelter. All those innovations have leaded the universe to the highs of modern epoch and the consequence is apparent in forepart of our eyes today. Now we are taking our lives in a wholly globalised and industrialised universe. The industries have come into being after the reaching of the Industrial Revolution. Industries are playing a cardinal function in present twenty-four hours life. The theoretical and practical maps of these industries are increasing to the extremums in about every sector like fabrication, services, production, wellness, transit, conditions prediction, information engineering etc, . In every industry the belongingss like quality of the merchandises, safety and efficiency of the merchandises are going really of import. This is because of the development of the complicated technological strategies like the web systems of fabrication, mills, machines, vehicles and control systems etc, . In this procedure the scientists / research workers are seeking to pick up the finer stairss and attacks for more development and to take the control over these industrial systems. The industrial systems are the combination of three important facets. They are Multifunctional engineerings, Humans and Means of actions. The lone purpose of the Industrial systems direction is to manage and cover out with the complex engineerings by happening and bettering the right methods and tools. The industrial systems is now confronting many more future challenges because of the fast accelerating alteration in today ‘s engineering. There are many facets involved in this type of systems direction. In this paper it considers one of the constructs involved in the industrial direction, i.e. , Operations Management.

Operations Management has been in being from so many old ages. It is a Latin word, which means “ Work ” . It was ab initio concentrated on the fabrication processes in the little graduated table and big graduated table mills. Those were the things that gave laterality in the activities of the economic system. In the initial phase it was called as the production directions in 1900s. That was the age when goods like motor vehicles ( autos & A ; motor rhythms ) , chilling machines ( iceboxs ) and electronic goods ( telecastings & A ; wirelesss ) were being manufactured for the first clip in a monolithic measure. At that clip, this production direction was managed to concentrate on the activities that was taking topographic point internally in the industry. It was besides obsessed to the things like organisation of the industrial equipments, labor and the work which is traveling through within the industry background. But subsequently, it was understood that the operation of the industry non merely simply depends upon the internal factors, but besides on the external facets like the public presentation of the providers and client satisfactions. This led to the activity of including the supply concatenation systems, the up flow from the maker and the down flow from the industry. This procedure took topographic point upon the distribution and developed with the growing of the several houses. It besides linked with the industries in the service sector like hotels, Bankss etc. , which has ironss or subdivisions. Then the term Operations Management came into being. So the term OM can be defined as “ the direction procedure that converts inputs ( such as stuffs, labor, resources and energy ) into end products ( in the signifier of goods and services ) ” . To explicate in another manner, it is a direction that trades with the apparatus and services of all the things. In the existent position the operations direction is a ‘sleeping giant ‘ , as it was non acknowledged by many people. They non even understood that they can make their work in the industry with in this direction map. But the state of affairs has wholly changed in the recent times. Everyone came to cognize the importance of the techniques of the operations direction. Industries like electronic, fabricating etc, were seen to be succeeded and developed their dependability and efficiency of the goods.

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Harmonizing to J.A.Meighem, V. , ( 2011 ) , “ Operations direction involves the planning and coordination of work. It is particularly concerned with the creative activity and bringing of merchandises and services with supplying the best lucifer of supply with demand. ” The elaborate and systematic program of action of operations direction includes the work widening over comparatively long clip in planing and besides in the application of designed construction. The activities which are done by this OM are really simple and necessitate more and more on the job capital and human resources. There are assorted operations direction such as Benchmarking, Forecasting, Supply Chain direction, Capacity planning, Inventory planning, Scheduling etc. This paper explains two of the above mentioned operation direction techniques, i.e. , Benchmarking and Forecasting with a instance survey on each of them explicating its applications in item.


Definition and Meaning

Harmonizing to Jim, R. , ( 2012 ) , “ Benchmarking is the procedure of placing “ Best Practice ” in relation to both merchandises ( including ) and the procedure by which those merchandises are created and delivered. ” The geographic expedition for the “ best pattern ” can take topographic point both in one specific industry and besides in the different industries. The chief purpose of benchmarking is to gain and measure the recent place of an industry by covering with the best pattern and besides to detect the Fieldss of development, the ways which helped for it.

Benchmarking is a process that is used to make up one’s mind or judge the best thing, best criterion and the best one to put all the criterions. For illustration, if we want to compare and contrast the states with high atomic capableness and engineering in the universe, what processes would we use to do a comparing between United States of America and Russia to make up one’s mind which of them is holding the best atomic arms and why. Obviously it is the technique of “ Benchmarking ” that will be used in this scenario. Similarly, in the construct of concern besides, we use the benchmarking operations direction technique to compare among the industries and to find which the best among them is. It besides includes the finding of industry, which is holding the best gross revenues and a best section of client service. Many of the freshly coming industries have a inquiry in their heads that why should we really do this benchmarking. The lone reply for this inquiry is, if they are incognizant of their ain criterions, they can non compare their administration with other industries. Besides they should be cognizant of the criterions of their competitory industries. For all these procedures, the benchmarking should be done. In the past the benchmarking was merely carried out in the fabrication industries. But now everyone is cognizant of this procedure and came to cognize that the consequences are truly successful by utilizing this technique. In today ‘s concern environment, benchmarking has become an operation direction tool and acquiring applied about anyplace in all the industries such as production, electronics, wellness, instruction, touristry etc, . If we want to benchmark a victor of a game so the lone thing we should make is to work out on the issues like how he managed to be the best among everyone. The similar methods could be adopted to stand in the prima place.

Procedure of Benchmarking

By and large benchmarking is a longer attempt procedure. The thing it involves in it is to hold a expression on the operation of specific industries, houses, countries, states etc. , to derive the cognition of their public presentation that how they are pull offing to make their degrees and ends. By analyzing and understanding all the methods that they have applied would give the appropriate and successful consequences. This is the manner the benchmarking technique aid to accomplish the highest quality of public presentation. The cardinal thing in this procedure lies in using the methods that have learnt from other administrations and implementing them in their ain industry.

Normally there are four chief stairss to follow in the practical applications of benchmarking techniques. They are as follows:

Geting to the full cognizant of the current concern environment and the procedure.

Having concentration on the concern techniques of other industries and analyzing them to the nucleus.

Examining and detecting the similarities or differences in the operation and public presentation of their ain industry with the other industries that were analysed earlier.

Application and execution of the indispensable technique to cut down the spread of public presentation between their industry and other specific houses.

The procedure of benchmarking should non be like the procedure that occurs merely one time ; it must me like every clip on traveling technique. It should go the cardinal portion of the presently raising betterments with the purpose of maintaining informed of of all time increasing best pattern.

Types of Benchmarking

There are about seven types of Benchmarking techniques. They are as follows:

Strategic benchmarking

Performance or Competitive benchmarking

Procedure benchmarking

Functional benchmarking

Internal benchmarking

External benchmarking

International benchmarking

The Strategic benchmarking is used in a concern that needs to improvize the entire operation and public presentation. It can be possible merely by concentrating on the long term strategies. It besides needs the high degree performing artists for its success. The Strategic benchmarking ever considers the high degree chances like rivals, presenting and doing development in the latest merchandises and client services. This benchmarking besides develops its capacity to cover out with the alterations that happen outside the organisation. But the execution of the alterations that they get from this type of benchmarking is excessively tough and they besides take really long clip to acquire employed. Performance or Competitive benchmarking trades with the concern who compare their industries with the other industries. The merchandises and client services plays an progressively of import function here. This is the type of benchmarking that helps to compare, analyse the techniques of the other industry ‘s public presentation which are viing in the same sector and so utilizing the necessary stairss to cut down the spread between them. Procedure benchmarking chiefly concentrates on the important operations and operation. It involves in the production f the maps and helps in the issues of comparing and analysing. Those are called the procedure maps. Functional benchmarking is used to benchmark the two spouses from different industries or activities and besides to measure the agencies of actions to better the standardized work maps. This type of benchmarking leads to innovations and dramatic developments. Internal benchmarking is a really easy procedure. It involves the marker of two different units in the same industry. It takes really less clip and less figure of resources for its procedure. But the existent innovations and the best public presentation is non possible in this type of benchmarking. External benchmarking considers the industries which are at the outer environment. It helps to judge the best prima organisation. It takes the considerable clip and resources but the consequence related to public presentation is ever better than the internal benchmarking. International benchmarking is the concluding one which benchmarks the concern throughout the Earth. Since the consequences obtained from the spouses of the same industries or state may non be sufficient to analyze the procedures. For this procedure it takes more and more clip and resources. Because there are so many differences between all the states. That is why it is a long term facet to use. The globalised universe and developments in the IT field are making many more opportunities for the universe broad undertakings.

Advantages and Disadvantage of Benchmarking

The advantages of benchmarking are as follows.

The benchmarking is the procedure of comparing two specific industries, make up one’s minding the best among them and analyzing the stairss for their success. In this context this benchmarking technique contains many advantages. The advantages of benchmarking affect the cost of labor or workers. For case, a company which has less figure of fabricating outputs focal points on a top company to analyze how they are doing usage of automatons in their company to cut down the cost of labor and how they are managed to acquire all the information about the maker of those automatons. Then after analyzing, using the same methods in their company by utilizing benchmarking may cut down their sum disbursement on labor.

The benchmarking technique can besides be used to improvize the quality of the merchandises of industry. The applied scientists of a company purchase the merchandises of top most competitor industries in the market and analyze the end product public presentations. They compare the constituents of their merchandise to the top most one. Then automatically they will improvize the quality of the merchandise.

Some of the industries like to use the internal benchmarking in their organisation to better the operation of different units of the industry.

The benefits of benchmarking besides include the outgoing rivals, giving chances for the new and modern thoughts and maintaining the betterments of industries in ongoing procedure.

Benchmarking provides the industries with the best and short clip development methods depending on the current state of affairss and keeps the organisation in a safe zone. It helps to better the operation efficiency.

We all know that a coin has two different sides. Similarly every construct contains two sides, i.e. , pros and cons. Apart from the above mentioned advantages the benchmarking besides contains some disadvantages. They are as follows.

The chief disadvantage of benchmarking method is it leads to the hazard of complacence and arrogance. Because so many industries prefer to acquire relaxed after they crossed the boundary line of first-class public presentation of their competitory industries. It automatically develops the complacence in them and when the clip they understood that they are in taking place, it decidedly leads to the feeling of haughtiness. Then they will happen no range for the future developments.

Another major disadvantage of benchmarking is it merely calculates some portion of efficiency of the functional metric units. Since it is deficient to measure the complete efficiency of such type of metric units.

Case Study ( Service Sector )

The benchmarking technique provided its excellence in many Fieldss and in many sectors. The undermentioned instance study belongs to the service sector. It is about the betterments that have taken topographic point in Brookfield Zoo in 2005 by utilizing the benchmarking technique.

The Brookfield Zoo is located in Chicago, United States of America. It is one of the most celebrated Zoological Institution of USA. But they were missing in the dedication to the client service from several old ages. They became incapable of making the quality of being loyal to the clients. But subsequently the of import leaders of the Zoo idea of driving the establishment in other manner. In support of that they came from Brookfield to the topographic point called Orlando for seven twenty-four hours back out. From at that place, they constructed the systematic strategy of client services by comparing with the other establishments. This strategy included figure of actions of trueness. Those leaders were already trained to take the lead of opening move of the client concentrations. They selected the Zoo assistants and trained them to show the best client service. The trainers conducted these Sessionss for more or less 1500 members of the crew and about disbursement over a clip of 900 adult male hours on the run. They besides developed the kits called leading tool kits to supply the mundane conversations with the members of the staff to cognize about all the services of excellence. After that a study was held in 2005. It states that even though the service programme was started really tardily in the spring season of 2005, the figure of visits for the menagerie who were extremely satisfied with the installations raised over 18 % compared to 2004.there are besides other considerable betterments which has taken topographic point in the establishment. They are as follows.

In the rankings of the entire cost value – The visitants who gave the remarks that it was a first category value was increased by about 12 % .

The rankings have taken topographic point for the menagerie assistant staff – The visitants who agreed that they are being helped beyond their outlooks was increased by approximately 8 % .

The per centum of visitants who said that they are decidedly traveling to see the Zoo in the undermentioned twelvemonth, addition by about 7 % .

It is about 65 % of members who has paid their attending towards the staff of Zoo and interacted with them in listening about the Zoo and the animate beings. This figure is merely 9 % in 2004.

Everything was increased in 2005 compared to the twelvemonth 2004. This is all because of the enormous alterations among the staff members of the Zoo. In the similar manner benchmarking provides many more chances for success in every sector of organisation.


Definition and Meaning

Harmonizing to Dr. Ravi Mahendra, G. , Forecasting is defined as “ A prognosis is an estimation of a future event achieved by consistently uniting and projecting frontward in pre-determined manner informations about the yesteryear. ” The prediction is merely called as the message that is stated or declared about the hereafter. It is clearly headed that one should distinguish between the bad prognosis and good prognosis. The executions of good prognosis is ever reasonably valuable and deserving doing procedures. The long term findings of be aftering call for many elements like common economic fortunes, present industries trends, functions of rivals, complete political environment and many more things.

The prediction can be possible merely when a company contains its bing informations history. For illustration, a telecasting maker has a opportunity to utilize his old informations for the rating of needed figure of screens for his following hebdomad ‘s assemblage docket. But the same thing can non be done by the makers of iceboxs and autos. If they want to offer for the new 1s, they can non calculate, but they have to foretell everything. The good anticipations are based on the accomplishments and the experience of the director of the company. In the instance of the concern, many industries use this prediction technique. In concern environment it is by and large the combination of both the prediction and the anticipations. The prognosiss are differentiated consequently with clip periods and use. Normally the short clip prognosis which lasts up to one twelvemonth of clip directs the present maps. The medium clip which exists up to 3 old ages and the long clip prognosiss ( 5 old ages ) recommend the of import and competitory decisions. By and large the prognosis is non possible is in a perfect sense. Since the concern universe can non assure excessively many components with the assurance. Therefore it is really indispensable to instill the wont of constructing up the uninterrupted study on prognosiss and besides to go easy with the prognosiss which are inaccurate.

Procedure of Forecasting

By and large there are about 6 stairss which involves in the whole procedure of calculating method of operational direction. They are explained below.

The first measure of the procedure considers the designation procedure. This is all about placing the general demands and demands of the clients.

Normally in the 2nd measure is after placing the demands of clients, if they decide to implement the prediction technique the process followed here is choosing the clip period to use the technique.

The 3rd measure follows the process of choosing the method of prognosis that is to be used here. For making this one should hold a complete cognition about the all the methods of prediction, which method is suited for this procedure and the needed type of informations. By sing all the things it can be decided that one or more theoretical accounts is used in the procedure.

The undermentioned measure after choosing the method of prediction is to garner up all the required informations that is suited for the selected prediction technique. Furthermore the information should be like possible for the use of yesteryear records which meets the necessary demands of the method.

Fixing the prognosis is the following measure in the procedure of prediction. Here the theoretical account should be applied by utilizing the information that is collected and the value of the prediction should be calculated.

The concluding measure in the procedure of calculating operational direction is to cipher the resulted prognosis. But it should non be evaluated so easy and blindly. It is to be done in so many intervals of assurance. By and large the good theoretical accounts of calculating use their ain methods and techniques for measuring the high values and low values within the selected theoretical accounts. This rating can besides be done in some other procedures like logical feasibleness and the phenomenon of variableness.

Types of Forecasting

There are two types of Forecasting techniques. They are as follows:

Qualitative prediction methods

Quantitative methods

The Qualitative method is a method of calculating which uses the existent informations to specify the inclination of Qualitative or existent market. The information of non-numerical sequence is involved in the procedure. For illustration if a prognosis is being applied on a merchandise to happen out whether it would be successful or non, so it is indispensable to re-examine all the things that are described by the clients about their feeling of an ideal operation of the merchandise. In comparing, the Qualitative method of prediction is non every bit efficient as the Quantitative prediction. Because there are so many different formats that should be used in the Qualitative method. They are employed when the information is available in the nonsubjective market in a great trade.

The Qualitative method is a really efficient method. It ever uses the figure for its procedure. Those are like gross revenues Numberss, web Numberss, the sum of latest histories and cancellations of already bing 1s. These all things may transport out depending on the clip period of the prediction technique. The Qualitative methods are once more divided into two methods. They are as follows.

Explanatory methods

Time-series methods

The Explanatory methods ever use the current informations to cipher and find the inclination of the hereafter market demands. The Time-Series methods ever use the historic information or the informations from the past records to foretell the hereafter market.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Forecasting

By and large assorted organisations use assorted calculating methods to measure the result of the company. These methods employed by assorted organisations strictly based on the degree of informations available with in the industry or are in which that peculiar organisation is portion of. The advantages of the prediction are as follows.

This method provides the valuable input or information into the development of the concern.

It helps in the hereafter development of the organisation.

This technique uses qualitative informations.

Apart from these advantages there are besides some disadvantages of the prediction as follows.

The prognosis methods can non be used in the hereafter they can non give the accurate consequences.

The industries can non wholly depend on the prediction methods, because the concern universe can pick up with figure of different constructs and ever depends upon the rendering version of informations.

The bad prediction method can destruct all the fiscal position of an industry or an organisation.

Case Study ( Public Sector )

The undermentioned instance survey is a concern planning. It is all about the hereafter of the instruction industry. By understanding all the conditions and calculating procedures of the organisation it was clear that the concern that was be aftering is a really critical thing. The words like programs of concern and theoretical accounts of the concern should ne’er be used because they serve as the stronger demand for accomplishing the success of higher instruction in the country of the higher instruction it was really clear about the demands of the pupils that they wanted from their college experiences. Some of the establishments like Gold Standard, Eight Ivy conference Institutions provided their service as the idealistic campuses where the pupils gather at one topographic point for 4 or 5 old ages to larn and last in their grownup life.

A research was made in 2009 by the “ Chronicle Research Services. ” They made a study on the demands and demands of the pupil. In that study they found that most of the present pupils alternatively of remaining in the university campuses for 4 or 5 old ages, they are happening so many other ways for analyzing harmonizing to their state of affairss and demands. Those are like go toing the online categories, making the parttime surveies, taking the classs from different universities. Under this research the University admittance officer stated that by 2020 all the traditional full clip pupils will acquire decreased to half of the university admittances and 60 % will take classs wholly online, besides less pupils for 4 twelvemonth grade programme. The altering factors in the field of instruction has necessitated to turn to the issues such as convenience, flexibleness, fees etc. To run into them the other programmes are turning at a higher rate. The contrivers are seeking to alter this state of affairss twelvemonth by twelvemonth by utilizing the prediction techniques. The anticipations and quantitative methods play a cardinal function in this procedure.


The Operation Management techniques are used in about all the production, fabrication and service sectors. They are assisting the organisations in accomplishing the set marks and future developments.

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