The two countries, namely India and China have been in a constant state of tumult over the past decades with the border conflict seeming to be an overwhelmingly dispute. Both sides, having proportionate political and military might are unwilling to stand down and are doing all it takes to impound their claim to the dispute.Aksai Chin is an area of dispute which is located either in the Indian region of Jammu and Kashmir, or a part of China’s Xinjiang, in the west.The other region of conflict lies south of the McMahon Line,formerly referred to as the North East Frontier Agency,now called Arunachal Pradesh. A Sino-India war was fought in 1962 in both these areas.
Ever since, there have been incessant uprises with respect to the boundaries. Regular efforts have been made by both sides to resolve the dispute but with conflicting views the scenario stands unsettled. Background:The conflict dates it’s beginning to 1900’s when the British discovered Tawang, an important trading town which was known to be a part of the Tibetan territory.
Britain had formed treaties with China regarding Tibet’s boundaries with Sikkim and Burma. However, Tibet refused to comply to the boundaries formed by these treaties. Britain and Russia acknowledged the control of China over Tibet. Military forces were sent to Tibet by the Qing dynasty to establish a Chinese administration.When the qing dynasty began to dwindle, the government at Lhasa banished all Chinese militants and declared itself independent. However, China found this unacceptable.
In 1913, Henry McMahon, divided tibet into two parts: Inner tibet,which would be under the jurisdiction of the Chinese government and the outer tibet which would attain autonomy.The tibetan indian boundary was discussed and formed in simla in the absence of china.Due to lack of reparation, conflicts rose and negotiations failed when China and Tibet could not agree over the Sino-Tibetan boundary.
In 1937, the Survey of India published a map in which the McMahon Line was the official boundary.The McMahon Line:The McMahon line was named after Lieutenant Colonel Sir Arthur Henry McMahon in 1914. McMahon was a British Indian Army officer and administrator during the British rule.
He was a foreign secretary of the British Government of India and the chief negotiator of the Simla Accord.McMahon introduced this line in the Simla Accord to separate india and tibet. China however, did not prosecute this decision as it did not consider tibet an independent country having the power to sign treaties and assumed control over it.The district of Tawang remained in Tibetan jurisdiction until 1951.
According to Indian claims,the border was supposed to run through the highest ridges of the Himalayas,since the areas south of the Himalayas were traditionally Indian. However, the McMahon Line lay south of the boundary claimed by India. India believed that the Himalayas were the ancient boundaries, and thus should be the modern boundaries of India, while it is the position of the Chinese government that the conflicting area in the Himalayas have been geographically and culturally part of Tibet since ages..
Late 1950’s marks the time when the tension arose between the two countries, india and china over the mcmahon line.China and India fought the Sino-Indian War in 1962. Eventually, North-East Frontier Agency came to be known as Arunachal Pradesh and came under India’s power.Line Of Actual Control(LOC):The line demarcating the indian land from the chinese in the area of jammu and kashmir in the north is called the Line of Actual Control.No official boundary had ever been agreed upon between China and India, the Indian government even today affirms a boundary in the west, comparable to the Johnson Line of 1865, while the PRC government considers a line comparable to the Macartney–MacDonald Line of 1899, as the boundary.
The Chinese Prime Minister of the time, said that the LOC formed was the acceptable border line to follow while india dismissed this idea. The chinese troops infiltrated the indian lands to a vast extent and agreed to retreat by a small amount, diplomatically showing generosity in doing so if India were to accept the LOC.Ever since, there exists a friction between india and china with respect to the boundary. China constructed a road through Aksai Chin in 1956, connecting Xinjiang and Tibet.
Aksai Chin was easily accessible to the Chinese, but access from India was more problematic because it meant crossing the Karakoram mountains Consequently India was oblivious of the existence of the road until 1957—after it was finally confirmed when it was published in the map of China.China and India had signed agreements in the 1990s to demonstrate a modus vivendi on the border in the form of the Line of Actual Control. The 1993 agreement included that “No activities of either side shall overstep the line of actual control.” Eversince, India has complained that Chinese troops have conducted several hundred illegal infiltrations south of the LoAC every year, but because the PLA troops have always eventually withdrawn to the Chinese side of the LoAC, a major bilateral crisis has been prevented.