The undermentioned subdivision of this thesis shall sketch the methodological analysis and the method that shall be employed for the primary research subdivision of this thesis.
In touristry research there is an on-going demand for statistical penetrations but qualitative research offers a great trade of understanding at societal life from in a different manner ( Phillimore and Goodson, 2004 ) . Phillimore and Goodson ( 2004 ) argue that touristry research workers are non bound to follow a simple set of methods, and are hence free to unite a broad scope of attacks with a more sophisticated attitude to utilize qualitative research.
In order to give concrete burden to the primary research conducted this research will besides incorporate some secondary research. Roll uping informations from people who are involved with the touristry industry in Bangladesh will give considerable thoughts that will hold been formed by looking at secondary literature. It will besides supply the thesis with a personal penetration which can non be gained from carry oning qualitative research entirely.
4.1.1: Primary Research
From the beginning, I decided that my research objectives more easy impart themselves to more qualitative signifiers of analysis. This survey is basically trying to find how a figure of complex constructs impact and relate to one another. It requires the capable country to be looked at from a figure of different positions and for links between these separate positions to be determined. Britten et Al ( 1995 ) suggest that using qualitative methodological analysis allows for the research worker to, “ address research inquiries of immediate relevancy which are otherwise hard to look into ” ( p. 105 ) . Flick et Al ( 2004 ) travel on to indicate out that the usage of qualitative methodological analysis can aide in, “ the apprehension of complex relationships instead than account by isolation of a individual relationship, such as ’cause ‘ and ‘effect ‘ ” ( p. 8 ) . Sofaer ( 1999 ) further argues that this can ensue in, “ rich descriptions of phenomenaaˆ¦it non merely serves the desire to depict ; it besides helps travel the question towards more meaningful accounts ” ( p. 1102 ) . It is for these grounds that this survey will near the research objectives from a qualitative, instead than giving practical weight to quantitative, attack.
4.1.2: Secondary Research
Secondary analysis has a well-established lineage. This will supply the utile information in order to understand the background of the topic. Hakim ( 1982 ) province that, “ secondary information analysis is any farther analysis of an bing dataset which presents readings, decisions or knowledge extra to, or different from, those produced in the first study on the enquiry as a whole and its chief consequences ” ( p 1 ) . Secondary informations can encompass a whole scope of experimental signifiers ; it can include the informations generated through systematic reappraisals, through documental analysis every bit good as the consequences from authorities sponsored studies ( Smith, 2008 ) . Secondary literature provides a considerable beginning for appreciative which is necessary when doing determinations sing any subject and puting progress theories to develop state of affairss.
There are a figure of different methods that can be used in concurrence with qualitative methodological analysis. It is of import to choose a method that will give the most utile informations for this survey. Denzin and Lincoln ( 2003 ) province that, “ qualitative research is a located activity that locates the perceiver in the universe. It consists of a set of interpretative, material patterns that makes the universe visible. These practicesaˆ¦ turn the universe into a series of representations including field notes, interviews, conversations, exposure, recordings and memos to the ego. At this degree, qualitative research involves an interpretative, realistic attack to the universe. This means that qualitative research workers study things in their natural scene, trying to do sense of, or to construe, phenomena in footings of significances people bring to them ” .
The first method that was considered was focus groups. MacNaghten and Myers ( 2004 ) suggest that this method is most utile for research workers who possibly, “ are non wholly certain what categories, links and positions are relevant ” ( p. 65 ) . However, this method can give informations that can be hard to understand and construe. For an inexperient research worker this could show a job and could take to informations that is possibly non every bit rich as it could be.
I eventually chose semi-structured interviews as my primary research method. Kvale ( 1983 ) states that the usage of this method presents the research worker with the chance to, “ garner the life-world of the interviewee with regard to reading of the significance of the described phenomena ” ( p. 174 ) . It is this existent universe experience that will give my informations existent deepness and will hopefully assist me to understand some of the complex jobs faced by my respondents. Another advantage of this method is outlined by Blee and Taylor ( 1995 ) who argue that semi-structured interviews topographic points human bureau, “ at the Centre of the motion analysis. Qualitative interviews are a window into the mundane universe of militants, and they generate representations that embody the topics ‘ voices, minimising, at least every bit much as possible, the voice of the research worker ” ( p. 96 ) .
I had hoped to be able to carry on this research in Cox ‘s Bazar. However, it became clear to me early in my research that this was non likely to be popular. Alternatively, I chose to concentrate my research on travel bureaus in the UK who offer vacations to Cox ‘s Bazar and other parts of Bangladesh. I chose to pull my sample group from bureaus located in Bangladeshi communities. Tower Hamlets, Manchester and Oldham has arguably the highest concentration of Bangladeshi ‘s in the state, so I chose to aim travel agents here.
I phoned round several bureaus and managed to procure interviews with 5 travel agents. A few yearss before the interviews, these respondents were sent an lineation of my survey so that they could possibly get down to fix their responses. This would hopefully give richer information for me to utilize. These interviews were largely conducted face to face, although two was conducted over the phone and Skype. I recorded the interviews and took extended notes during them. I was witting of the fact that, “ in semi-structured interviewing, analysis and reading are ongoing procedures ” ( Blee and Taylor, 2002: 110 ) . Unlike in quantitative informations aggregation where one waits until all the information is collected before get downing the analysis procedure, with qualitative informations aggregation, the analysis is an on-going procedure. In the analysis of the information, I employed a reasonably broad reading of the grounded theory method. Stern ( 1994 ) suggests that this method is most helpful for research workers researching new capable countries or who merely want to derive a fresh position on a familiar state of affairs ( p. 30 ) . The usage of this method demands that the research worker invariably re-evaluates the information collected and so categorizes and codifications it. I decided that my codifications would be the aims set at the start of this thesis. I re-listened to my interviews to my interviews a figure of times to happen parts of the informations that best met my aims.
The undermentioned subdivision of this thesis will show the findings from the primary research and discourse these in visible radiation of the findings from the literature hunt. The aims of the survey ( see 3.2 ) were used as markers in the interviews. Although the respondents were allowed to ‘veer off path ‘ , I ever tried to convey the treatment back to the four chief aims steering this research.
5. Research Findings and Analysis
Obviously it will non be possible to show all the informations gathered from the interviews. This undermentioned subdivision will utilize the research objectives around which selected quotation marks from the interviews will be presented. This will be followed by a brief treatment of how the primary informations relates to the secondary informations.
5.1: To measure and specify sustainable touristry development in footings of environment, economic and civilization
R2: I think that sustainable touristry is about seeking to guarantee that the touristry industry contributes something positive, non merely to the economic system of a state, but besides the environment and the civilization.
R5: Tourism is now more approximately doing every bit much money as possible in the short-run. We have to be able to look to the long-run. This is what I believe sustainable touristry development to be all about.
There was by and large a good apprehension of sustainable touristry development amongst the respondents. Most of the respondents were able to see that touristry has impacts beyond the purely economic. They besides realized that a long-run position to touristry had to be taken to guarantee the success of this industry into the hereafter. This long-run attack is possibly reflected in the field of touristry planning. Getz ( 1986 ) argues that when touristry planning was foremost developed in the 1960s, the subject ‘s chief focal point came, “ about wholly from the position of maximising economic growing ” ( p. 21 ) . Over the decennaries, the focal point has shifted and is now, “ more sensitive to non-economic issues ” ( p. 32 ) . Murphy ( 1985 ) argues that it is the duty of the touristry industry to, “ develop and protect its attractive forces, whether they are natural or semisynthetic, and go a cordial reception industry to do visitant experiences every bit gratifying as possible ” ( p. 10 ) .
We now have a greater apprehension of how touristry, merely like any other industry, is dominated by the forces of supply and demand ( Gunn and Var, 2002 ) . We are progressively cognizant that touristry is dependent on finite natural and cultural resources. These have to be protected to guarantee that touristry can be a sustainable activity that can so hold a positive part to the economic, societal and political development of a state or a part. Cox ‘s Bazar is undeniably beautiful and has all the devisings of a really good vacation finish. However, this study would reason that this location is non yet ready to manage big sums of tourers from abroad. Proper touristry programs are non yet in topographic point that could cover with an rush in demand. A sudden inflow of tourers might profit the part economically in the short-run, but would non take to sustained growing in the hereafter. It might besides put great force per unit area on the bing natural and cultural resources, upon which the touristry industry is dependent in the first topographic point. As Neto ( 2002 ) argues, “ natural resource depletion and environmental debasement associated with touristry activities are sometimes serious jobs in tourism-rich parts. The direction of natural resources to change by reversal this tendency is therefore one of the most hard challenges for authoritiess at different degrees. ” ( p. 6 ) . This study would reason that the Bangladeshi authorities has still non put in topographic point steps that would procure the long-run sustainable hereafter of this location.
5.2: To look into and happen the specific demand for sustainable touristry development in Cox ‘s Bazar.
R3: I think that if sustainable development is to be a world in Cox ‘s Bazar, the authorities has to take the lead.
Unfortunately, since the research for this thesis was non carried out on location, the informations yielded for this aim during the semi-structured interviews was non every bit utile as it could hold been. Although all of the respondents were familiar with Cox ‘s Bazar, they were non cognizant of any specific issues.
This study would reason that the key to success in sustainable touristry development is touristry be aftering. Any such program should be developed with a clear apprehension of, “ how touristry serves the broader community involvement and an apprehension of the positive and negative impacts of touristry development ” ( Talwar, 2006: 74 ) . Key to this is how you involved people who are likely to be affected by the touristry industry. This draws on Freeman ‘s ( 1984 ) stakeholder theory. A stakeholder can be understood as, “ any group or person who can impact or is affected by the accomplishment of the house ‘s nonsubjective ” ( Freeman, 1984: 26 ) . Stakeholders could include local concerns, non-governmental organisations ( NGOs ) and the local community. This study would reason that the most of import group to prosecute with is the local community. They are those likely to be most affected by any alterations in the touristry industry. As Gunn ( 1994 ) points out, “ programs will bear small fruit unless those most affected are involved from the start ” ( p. 111 ) . Murphy ( 1985 ) goes on to reason that it is particularly of import that local communities are seen as a cardinal stakeholder group and that they are engaged with from the start. He states that, “ touristry relies on the good will and cooperation of local people because they are portion of its merchandise. Where development and planning do no tantrum in with local aspirations and capacity, opposition and ill will can destruct the industry ‘s possible raw ” ( p. 153 ) .
By prosecuting with local communities in the touristry be aftering procedure from the start, it gives them an ownership in the procedure ( Allen and Brennan, 2004 ) . It can authorise local communities ( Beeton, 2006 ) and do them experience more invested in the success, or failure, of the touristry program. Tourism planning has tended to be a top down procedure in the yesteryear, guaranting that the economic benefits were non equally shared. However, by prosecuting with local communities and leting them to hold a say in how touristry planning is implemented, it ensures that these people, the 1s most affected, benefit from this industry. This can so take to socio-economic development.
5.3: Critically discuss whether those involved in the touristry industry in Bangladesh have a clear apprehension of the construct of sustainable development.
R5: I do n’t to the full understand what this term means. I know that touristry can convey a batch of money into a state, which can so be used for development
The primary research part of this thesis found that most of the respondents had an apprehension of the construct of sustainable development. However, most of the people interviewed are non straight involved in the touristry planning procedure. They sell the touristry merchandise but that is every bit far as their engagement goes. Possibly it would hold been more utile if this thesis had interviewed people straight involved in the touristry planning procedure.
Given the evident confusion in academic circles as to a individual definition for sustainable touristry development, it is barely surprising that most ordinary people do non to the full understand this term. Tourism is a immense industry and one that most people do n’t to the full understand. Adding the construct of sustainable development on top of this already misunderstood construct leads to even more confusion. It does n’t assist when the academic community is apparently unable to bring forth a individual feasible definition for this construct.
This paper would besides reason that there is a farther complication in finding what portion touristry plays in wider development programmes. Hashimoto ( 2002 ) points out that, “ it is impossible to insulate the effects of touristry development from other signifiers of development. In some states, touristry is the major subscriber to societal economic development while, in other states, touristry ‘s overall part to development is minimum ” ( p. 205 ) . This thesis would reason that given Bangladesh ‘s deficiency of any other existent dominant industry, the part of touristry to overall socio-economic development could be clearly traced back. Herein lies another danger. Should Cox ‘s Bazar accomplish its true potency and go a universe celebrated touristry finish, there is a danger that the economic system of Bangladesh could go excessively reliant on the income from touristry. This would go forth this industry highly vulnerable to external dazes such as terrorist act or natural catastrophes. However, if the touristry industry has been developed in a sustainable manner, it should be able to endure these dazes.
5.4: To develop decisions and recommendations based on the findings that could be implemented in Cox ‘s Bazar.
The undermentioned subdivision of this thesis will cover with this aim.
6. Decisions and Recommendations
Bangladesh is an highly hapless state though we Bangladeshi people argue that we are developing state. However, if Cox ‘s Bazar was marketed and developed decently, this state could see the power that touristry has to assist raise parts out of poorness. However, any programs to increase touristry to this part have to be managed sensitively in order to guarantee that natural resources are non damaged and that those people who will be most affected by any addition in touristry have an active interest in any possible success. This thesis has a figure of recommendations that it would wish to do.
1. Identify Key Stakeholders. It is highly of import that touristry contrivers are able to place which stakeholders they need to prosecute with in order to develop a successful touristry program. A assortment of histrions stand foring the populace, private and non-profit sectors work together in development procedure for touristry development procedure ( Sharpley and Telfer, 2008 ) and lend to development, as it enhances the development of micro, little and medium-scale endeavors that cater to the tourer demand for goods and services. Different stakeholders might necessitate different degrees of battle and it is up to touristry contrivers to find at what degree to prosecute these different groups. The development is determined by replying what the stakeholders want it to be and Stakeholders include tourer ; tourer concerns including investors, developers, operators, stockholders, direction, employees, public and private sectors ; the host community and their authorities ( Liu, 2003 ) .This paper would reason that local communities should be the focal point of any touristry program. Tourism planning should be an inclusive procedure.
2. Invest in Educational Programmes. Local communities and other stakeholder groups have to understand how their actions impact on their natural environment. The findings from the primary research part of this thesis would look to propose that there is a limited apprehension of how the touristry industry depends on natural and cultural resources. Peoples need to be able to understand this nexus before they can experience invested in touristry planning and take action to guarantee that their impact on the environment is limited.
3. Use Grosss from Tourism Sensibly. This thesis would reason that as Cox ‘s Bazar begins to turn and bring forth more gross, this should be used in a responsible manner to fund other development programmes. Tourism can lend tremendously to the economic well-being of a state. However, this can merely be achieved if the gross from touristry is put to good usage. Governments have to protect their natural and cultural resources to guarantee that the gross from touristry continues to turn. They besides should put in the general well-being of their state.