The world today is very aware of the powers nuclear bombs have, and the destruction they cause. The world is risking it existence by continuing nuclear bomb construction and going even further and creating hydrogen bombs that could harm even more than nuclear. Imagine the creation of an antimatter bomb. This bomb uses 100% of its matter and converts it to energy, creating an explosion larger and more damaging than any bomb created before. This is due to the energy created by the collision of matter and antimatter. Now the existence of such a bomb is only seen in fiction but the pure energy created is not fiction. In a coin-purse, one can hold enough matter and antimatter to destroy an entire city, but if it is controlled it can be used to run an entire city. Through the research done, antimatter should become easier to control, produce, and to study in the near future. According to the author, antimatter can produce the purest energy form known to man. In recent years the study of protons and electrons has revealed a lot of interesting things such as the discovery of quirks, antiprotons, and antielectrons. In nature there are many examples of opposites, opposites attract. So the idea of protons and electrons having an opposite did not come surprising to many. In June of 1905, the physics journal Annalen der Physik by Albert Einstein the ideas of space, time, energy, and mass were introduced. Leading the way to new concepts on energy. By 1912 Victor Hess had then contributed to the movement of energy in space by discovering cosmic rays. Erwin Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg in the 1920s put past equations to test, resulting in the reinvented quantum theory of physics. In 1928 the concept of antiparticles came to light. Paul Dirac combined special relativity and quantum theory to study the movements of electrons. By knowing that x2=4 has two possible answers (x=2,x=-2), Dirac found that in his equation the electron had two possible energies. A positive electron, as known by physicists, and the new negative electron. This discovery began the search for anti-particles. A few years later, Carl Anderson discovered evidence of the anti-electron, “positron”, when positively charged electrons left behind tracks in a cosmic particles study. The search for other anti-particles continues and Ernest Lawrence patented the invention of the cyclotron. This machine would allow a physicist to accelerate nuclear particles at high velocities without high voltages. Years later the anti-proton was discovered by using 6.2 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). This gave more evidence to the symmetry in nature. Little after the antiproton and anti-electron came the antineutron. From the discovery of this came the want to store them. In 1978 came the first storage of antiprotons that lasted 300,000 seconds (85 hours) which was over 300x the first storage which lasted 10-4 seconds. Now that storage was possible, the studies began to have more meaning and more understanding. The world’s first antiproton-proton collision took place in 1981, allowing physicist to understand how this matter and antimatter annihilate each other. Over a decade later physicist were able to put the antimatter particles together and created an antiatom, confirming their existence. (Timeline)Matter is the element that physicist have come to know very well considering it is what makes up everything around us. Air, water, fire, light, and many other things. They all have matter in them. All the things that structure homes, the earth, and the solar system are what’s considered normal positive matter. Antimatter is defined by itself. “A particle having the same mass as a given elementary particle and a charge equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.”(CRC Physics book) Same structures, weight, nucleus, yet different electrical charge. Scientist have come to the conclusion through research and math that when matter and antimatter collide they annihilate each other creating the purest energy form known. The storage of these antiparticles is possible due to accelerators created such as CERN. In a pure vacuum the anti-atoms could potentially last a very long time and studied very well but due to impurities and other factors, such perfect vacuum could not be made. Currently, only around one billionth to 10 billionths of a gram of antimatter is produced per year. The rate of creation is slowly increasing, meaning that by 2020 around 10 billionths to 15 billionths of a gram could be produced per year. The cost of this is very expensive. A gram is estimated to cost $100 quadrillion and to produce it, it would take 100 billion years. With that in mind, physicist aim to find a cost-efficient way to produce and store antimatter. If this is achieved only a few millionths of a gram could run a city for a year or send rockets to Mars. This potential new energy form could create a world of new possibility. (Michio Kaku – Physics of the Impossible, 2009) The Big Bang theory is one of the strongest theories today to explain the beginning of the universe. Antimatter is one of the largest unexplained conflicts that put the ‘Big Bang’ into question. There is a universe today which is made up of matter, so the question lies in how did matter outweigh the antimatter. The problem is not at the moment of the bang but rather the events that took place afterward. According to laws of physics and the symmetry of the universe, matter and antimatter were created in exact proportions. Barely a second later there was no more antimatter, just enough matter to be put together by the force of gravity. All this creating the universe today. So if antimatter and matter had equal proportions and they annihilate each other at the point of contact then it is easy to conclude that the universe would consist of only gamma rays. Not as the universe known today. After many studies in accelerators such as CERN, there has yet to be a situation where more matter is produced after collision. It takes it back to the question of where the asymmetry took place after the Big Bang. The most common explanation is that the lack of research does not clarify if the particles are exact opposite. To go more deeply into this mispairing the understanding of particle decay is necessary. When particles such as protons and electrons decay they decrease by one. The makeup of these is known in Baryons. A Baryon is a particle made of three quarks. When put side by side there is an imbalance causing conservation. As the theory goes, the moment these baryons came into place somehow matter was favored in the conservation. Once again giving to the creation of the universe. If the imbalance favored antimatter than the universe would be an antimatter universe. An understanding that theorist side with goes along with electroweak interactions. Meaning that the conservation of the baryons regardless of it being matter or antimatter would have favored the strong force. Many theorists and physics including Stephen Hawking believe that there could even be an antiworld. Such world would be made up of only antipeople and antiparticles. “If you meet your antiself, don’t shake hands! You would both vanish in a great flash of light.”(the book of everything) This is due to the annihilation of antiparticles with the opposite particles. Because of their opposite energy charges they cancel each other out. Such cancellation is what causes confusion on the existence of the particles after the big bang. Why did more matter exist compared to antimatter? There is no clear answer to this question because antimatter is known to exempt from many laws of physics. Many questions still remain due to the difficulty of studying it. Even though there are many questions there are some being answered today. Such as the effects they have in black holes or how much energy it can actually produce. Antimatter is the key element in producing infinite pure energy but that is only seen in fiction. The moment that it becomes non-fiction the world will never be the same. Physicist want the questions of the people to be answered and to put many theories to rest. The problem lies in the sensitivity of the antiparticles and the cost of maintaining it. Without proper funding, such research will not continue. Without the advancement of machinery, antimatter continues to be as foreign to us as it was in the 1980s.

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