In order to to the full understand and analyse the text “The Souls of Black Folk” . a thorough survey on the background of the writer W. E. B. Du Bois must be done in order to understand the context in which the book was written. and in order to place the different factors which led him to see composing the book. William Edward Burghardt DuBois. “The Father of Pan-Africanism” otherwise referred to as W. E. B Du Bois. was born on February 23. 1868. in Great Barrington. Massachusetts to Alfred Du Bois and Mary Silvina Burghardt Du Bois.
Du Bois male parent. Alfred Du Bois was born in Haiti. and therefore makes William Du Bois half Haitian and half Gallic. The Du Bois’ French lineage hints back to the William Du Bois’ gramps who lived in Haiti prosecuting in plantations and the transportation industry which was yet blossoming. An outstanding critic. editor. bookman. writer. and civil rights leader. W. E. B. Du Bois is surely among the most influential inkinesss of the 20th century. ( “William Edward Burghardt DuBois” & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. gale. com/free_resources/bhm/bio/dubois_w. htm & gt ; ) .
Du Bois was known throughout the West as an African American militant who was strongly against racial bias and racial favoritism. Du Bois was born 5 months before the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified. and added to the U. S. Constitution. ( “W. E. B. Du Bois” & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/W. E. B. _DuBois # _ref-2 & gt ; ) This means he was born before protection for freed slaves in the whole United States was non yet approved by the state. although. he was born free. Du Bois grew in Great Barrington. Massachusetts without contact with his male parent.
Great Barrington at that clip merely had less than 50 Black people in its 5000 population. Although racial favoritism was barely felt in the country. the environment still proposing its being and the difference between white people and black people affected Du Bois personality. “This mutated the personality of immature William from good natured and surpassing to sullen and retreat. This was subsequently reinforced and strengthened by interior backdowns in the face of existent favoritisms. His demeanour of self-contemplation haunted him throughout his life. ” ( Hynes & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
duboislc. org/html/DuBoisBio. hypertext markup language & gt ; ) Du Bois earned his unmarried man grade at Fisk University at Nashville. Tennessee. and took go oning classs and finished his 2nd unmarried mans every bit good as a Ph. D. from Harvard University. During his first trip to the South. Du Bois’ construct of the race job became much clearer and defined. With this enlightenment. he became determined in oppressing the emancipation of his people. In 1891. ex-President Rutherford Hayes. a caput of a fund for the instruction of Negroes. declared that there was no such Negro who was worthy of analyzing abroad.
Du Bois challenged this declaration and applied straight to Hayes who accepted his misjudgment and sent him to the University of Berlin. in Germany. Du Bois “began to see the race jobs in the Americas. Africa. and Asia. and the political development of Europe as one” . ( Hynes. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. duboislc. org/html/DuBoisBio. hypertext markup language & gt ; ) At the early age of 26. Du Bois taught at Wilberforce in Ohio with the compensation of $ 800 a twelvemonth. In 1896. he accepted a particular family at the University of Pennsylvania where he studied the Pennsylvania 7th ward slums. in which he took the chance to analyze the Black as a Social System.
He besides established the Department of Sociology at the Atlanta University. which is now known as Clark Atlanta University. Du Bois wrote the Souls of Black Folk in 1903. although he besides wrote other books such as. The Philadelphia Negro. John Brown. Black Reconstruction. Black Folk. Then and Now. and The Negro. He besides wrote about offense and analyzed the major factors which contributed to the increased offense rate wherein a Negro population was present.
He said that “the visual aspect of offense among the Southern Negroes is a symptom of incorrect societal conditions- of a emphasis of life greater than a big portion of the community can bear” ( Du Bois. 1901b. p. 745 ) . Du Bois blamed the emancipation of the Negro and their harsh environment which led to their engagement and relation to offenses. Du Bois aid found the Niagara Foundation in 1905 together with William Trotter. nevertheless it was short lived since they had jobs sing whether they were to include white people in the organisation. since they were on their battle for civil rights.
Du Bois so founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) . He so used the NAACP’s newssheet the Crisis to recommend the cause of the Negro as good self-help and vocational preparation for southern inkinesss. This he did with Booker T. Washington which he subsequently had an ideological argument with since what Washington wanted was for inkinesss to absorb to the civilization of the white people. while Du Bois believed that they should hold a civilization of their ain. He was so invited to go a commissioned army officer during the first World War which nevertheless found him non it physically.
Du bois so became a member of the Alpha Phi Alpha. the first Greek-letter fraternity established for African-Americans. In 1942. due to the ruddy paranoia caused by the promotion of socialist provinces in the Asia and Europe. The FBI accused Du Bois of being a Communist. They said that this was due to the orientation of his readings which have lean to the left due to their progressive character. Du Bois besides visited Communist China. and headed the Peace Information Center during the Korean War. these were adequate grounds to label him as Communist.
After running for senate in 1950. he was indicted in the US under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. though he was acquitted due to the deficiency of grounds. In 1959. he received the Lennin Peace Prize. and in 1960 he joined the USA Communist Party. In 1961. he was invited to Ghana. to direct the Encyclopedia Africana. he accepted the offer and in 1963. when he was non issued another American Passport. He and his married woman became citizens of Ghana. On August 27. 1963. William Du Bois Died in Accra. Ghana. due to old age and hapless wellness.
Double Consciousness “After the Egyptian and Indian. the Grecian and Roman. the Teuton and Mongolian. the Negro is a kind of 7th boy. born with a head covering. and gifted with second-sight in this American universe. —a universe which yields him no true uneasiness. but merely lets him see himself through the disclosure of the other universe. It is a curious esthesis. this double-consciousness. this sense of ever looking at one’s ego through the eyes of others. of mensurating one’s psyche by the tape of a universe that looks on in diverted disdain and commiseration.
One of all time feels his two-ness. —an American. a Negro ; two psyches. two ideas. two unreconciled nisuss ; two warring ideals in one dark organic structure. whose dour strength entirely keeps it from being torn asunder. ” ( Du Bois 3. ) Chapter 1 on Du Bois’ book discusses on the double-consciousness. of an Afro-american. Du Bois explains dual consciousness as the feeling of holding two individualities in one individual which disturbs the person’s individuality. non cognizing which of the two to be recognized with. Du Bois’ believes that dual consciousness is a job of the Afro-american. who was one time been a slave.
This makes his freedom non merely a physical freedom. but a freedom to seek for his being which so causes confusion on his personality. whether he is to be considered as white or to be considered as a black. Since at that clip. being black agencies that you’re a slave or a former slave. and the society continues to handle inkinesss as slaves or 2nd category citizens. African americans try to be assimilated with the civilization of the White Americans. while at the same clip look back at their cultural yesteryear and attempt to pattern them.
In the effort to be assimilated to the civilization of the white. the African-Americans of Du bois clip seek to be witting about seeking difficult to be white. and seek to ignore his ain personality and civilization. as he tries to delight his former Masterss by being white himself. Du Bois impression of dual consciousness might hold risen from the cultural. political. and economic factors which might hold caused him to understand the life perceptual experience of an Afro-american.
The rough environment of Great Barrington every bit good as his battles in acquiring credits for his surveies and his efforts to go assimilated with the White people himself might hold led him to the apprehension of dual consciousness in an Afro-american. The Souls Of Black Folk The Souls of the Black Folk. is fundamentally a book written by Du Bois in an effort to critically understand and analyse the jobs of the Black people during his clip. by looking at the history of the being of the Black people and the history of their society in America.
He writes about his experiences and about the different people he’s met and he has been in struggle with. The narrative begins with the history of the freedom of the black common people due to the Civil war in which has led to their freedom. and what the White people had done in order to divide the Black common people and handle them as some other existences. It so discussed on the base and beliefs of Booker T. Washington which was submissive and counterproductive to the involvements and the long-run aspirations of the black common people during his clip.
The narrative. so tells about Du Bois’ experiences in Tennessee and his defeats with how the American philistinism has spoiled the civilization and the way of the so lifting Atlanta. He criticized philistinism as a cause to bury all the other of import factors of human existences and merely concentrate on gaining money and deriving wealth. He believes that there should be a balance between the “standards of lower training” and the “standards of human civilization and exalted ideals of life.
” In consequence. the African American college should develop the “Talented Tenth” who can in turn contribute to lower instruction and at the same clip service as jobbers in bettering the dealingss between the Black and the White. Du Bois so analyzes the life of the Black Folk in Georgia as he called it the Centre of Negro Problems. Du Bois tells about the history of the county every bit good as the current societal and economic factors which kept the county standing during that clip. such as the uninterrupted legal renter system which Du Bois believed has merely been somewhat removed from bondage.
Du Bois besides believed that this might besides be the chief cause of the job on why merely few African americans gain wealth on the economic system in Georgia. Du Bois besides discussed about the construct and the transmutation of the African American Religion from bondage to the formation of Baptist and Methodist churches. which have some groundss of the leftovers of the slave trade and the African American faiths. Du Bois believed that “the survey of Negro faith is non merely a critical portion of the history of the Negro in America. but no uninteresting portion of American history.
” At the latter chapters of The Souls of Black Folk. much accent was given on the effects of racial bias and the impacts of the colour line to the different persons during that clip. Du Bois besides mourned about the decease of his babe. but he considered the fact that his babe was better dead than to populate a life prejudiced by the rough color-line. Du bois besides told the narrative of Alexander Crummel a black cat who struggled against racial bias in his end to go an Episcopal priest.
On another chapter. “On the Coming of John” . the narrative tells about a immature Black adult male named John who was educated and through his instruction developed himself on going financially capable. However. besides due to his cognition. John got at odds with the southern common people. and with the racial bias nowadays. he is destroyed. The book ends with a chapter on Afro-american religious vocals. which are old and sad. and which told narratives about the strivings. and sorrows of the African people exiled in the land of America. and haunted by their yesteryear.
Impacts The narrative portions the experiences of the black common people within a racially prejudiced state and the colour line which deprives them of their rights to populate as normal citizens of the province. Du Bois’ apprehension of dual consciousness and his presentation thereof has led to a new position of new Afro-american authors when it comes to whiteness or the kernel of being white and their acknowledgment and credence of themselves as black authors.
Du Bois’ work besides influenced black writers’ heightened mentality to concentrate on their position. instead than on the position of the white people and society which are much prominent in their countries. At present this consciousness has been recognized by Afro-american authors. last May 2001. there was a call for the entry of documents about Whiteness and Double Consciousness in acknowledgment of W. E. B. Du Bois by the Justice site of the Graduate Review. a Web site of the California State University.
( The Graduate Review. 2001 ) Du Bois likely wrote The Souls of Black Folk to cast more visible radiation on the black people about they are being changed and manipulated by the society in which they have been forcibly taken into. Du Bois intended to clear up the mistakes of the white work forces and at the same clip analyze the strengths and failings of the Negro during his clip in order for them to recognize the demand to be free from the ironss of their cultural prison.
The narrative is fundamentally sympathetic since it tells about autonomy. equality and the history of the black common people which has been rough and sorrowful. yet edifying and at the same clip critical in the apprehension of the current social dealingss today. The narrative besides valuably presented the being of jobs and worlds which are needed to be realized during Du Bois clip. which at the same clip are still present up to now. Internal pragmatism is present in the narrative. since most of the narrative presents the experiences of the writer and his perceptual experience upon the universe during his clip.
Although the narrative itself tries to do the universe understand about the state of affairs of a Negro’s life during that clip and the battle as to which they have been with of all time since they have been in the Americas. Works Cited Du Bois. W. E. B. The Development of Negro Leadership. The Dial. 31 ( July 16. 1901 ) . Pp 745. Du Bois. W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. University of Virginia Library. 03 Aug 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //etext. Virginia. edu/toc/modeng/public/DubSoul. hypertext markup language & gt ; en. wikipidea. org. W. E. B. Du Bois. 01 Aug. 2007.
Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 03 Aug. 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/W. E. B. _DuBois # _ref-2 & gt ; Hynes. Gerald. A Biographical Sketch of W. E. B. Du Bois. 2007. Kansas City’s African American Community. 03 Aug. 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. duboislc. org/html/DuBoisBio. hypertext markup language & gt ; The Graduate Review. W. E. B. Du Bois. 14 May 2001. California State University. 03 Aug. 2007 & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. csudh. edu/dearhabermas/dubois. htm & gt ; World Wide Web. gale. com. William Edward Burghardt DuBois. 2007. 03 Aug. 2007. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. gale. com/free_resources/bhm/bio/dubois_w. htm & gt ;