Competitive advantage is the state of affairs that being desired by every house despite large or little the house. The thought of competitory advantage have been recognise for centuries. However, it is during the twelvemonth of 60 ‘s the construct was decently introduced by Edmund Learned & A ; Kenneth Andrews which stated that SWOT analysis are the major part towards accomplishing competitory advantage ( Mohammad Safari et Al, 2011 ) . Meanwhile, harmonizing to Duncan et Al ( 1998 ) , the ability to derive and prolong competitory advantage depends on the company location and their mark market. Although different scholar refers to other different expertness, most of them will decidedly mention to Porter ‘s definition sing competitory advantage which is an organisation can accomplish the competitory advantage if they able to take the hazard in the unsure industry, cater the demands of clients and respond to the new market entries ( Byeong Yong Kim and Haemoon Oh, 2004 ; Liqin Ren et Al, 2010 ) .


Competitive advantage

In strategic direction, one of the major aims that an organisation seeks is competitory advantage. Competitive advantage in simple words is where the house holding the forte in footings of merchandises or services that they produced comparisons with others rivals ( David, 2013 ) . Therefore, if the house have the ability to against the rivals and caters the demands of the clients, they are said holding the competitory advantage.

Sustain Competitive Advantage ( SCA )

Harmonizing to David ( 2013 ) , a house can non merely concentrating on gaining and accomplishing competitory advantage but besides prolonging it by bit by bit adapt to alterations that happen externally and internally every bit good as choose good planned schemes that brings benefits to the house. Different from it, another bookman propose that if the organisational resources are inimitable, valuable, rare and have no replacement it can take to prolong the competitory advantage ( Patricia Ordonez de Pablos & A ; Miltiadis D. Lytras, 2008 ) .

Dimension of Competitive Advantage

A survey that being made by Krajweski & A ; Ritzman found that if a house concentrating on the right dimension of the competitory advantage such as cost, quality, clip, flexibleness, invention, and reactivity, the house will be able achieve competitory advantage ( Mohammad Safari et Al, 2011 ) .


Cost or benefits and hazards related with the selling determination about the merchandises or services ( David, 2013 ) . The houses must do comparing among the rivals in footings of the cost of bring forthing the merchandises, fixed cost, employment rate cost and the productiveness ( Mohammad Safari et Al, 2011 ) . However differ from the two bookmans, for Duncan et Al ( 1998 ) , they proposed that even the houses holding cost advantages but still the resources and capablenesss of it should non be taken as the absolute determiners of competitory advantage.


Nowadays houses are more into the quality betterment in footings of the merchandises, procedure and services in order to accomplish first public presentation degree ( Beal & A ; Lockamy III, 1999 ) . Some of the manner that can be usage is by adding some alone features to the merchandises to derive competitory advantage and therefore benefits the consumers ( Mohammad Safari et Al, 2011 ) .


Definition of clip might be differing from one house to another. From the research done by Mohammad Safari et Al ( 2011 ) , they found out that cut downing presenting clip between the times the clients made the orders until the clip merchandises or services arrived can assist the house deriving competitory advantage.


For Patricia Ordonez de Pablos & A ; Miltiadis D. Lytras ( 2008 ) , they define flexibleness in footings of the steadfast flexibleness is the consequences from the employee flexible behavior. They introduced the theory of it after making some research on some strategic Human Resource Management ( HRM ) constituents which are the patterns, employee accomplishments and employee behaviors. Meanwhile, flexibleness from the position of Mohammad Safari et Al ( 2011 ) is the procedures of altering the merchandises to the new one or from one client to another at the least cost or impact.


Invention can be in footings of doing new or improvize the bing merchandises or service or even refer to the selling invention. Innovation fundamentally comes from the thought of the employees or the workers. Employee ‘s authorizations play an of import function in the invention ( Mohamad Safari et Al, 2011 ) . On the other manus, selling invention is the uninterrupted procedure that re-combines the selling schemes and produced new selling system that can vie at stronger market competitory capablenesss for the new merchandises and the publicities of new markets ( Liqin Ren et Al, 2009 ) .


Responsiveness can besides be called client satisfaction. The one key index that helps to find whether organisations have accomplishing the competitory advantage is by finding the client satisfaction of the merchandises or services. The client satisfaction can be measured by looking at the repetition gross revenues, positive word mouth-of-mouth and client trueness ( Mohammad Safari et Al, 2011 ) .

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