The Middle East is in South-West Asia, which is to the south of Europe, and to the east of Africa. On the right side is a map of the Middle East’s location. It extends over 2000 miles from the Black Sea in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south, and about 1000 miles from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Mountains of Iran in the east. The area from Israel to Iraq was once referred to as the ‘Fertile Crescent’, referring to the fertile soil of the area from Israel to Iraq. In the Middle East, the natural environment is best described as semiarid. In fact, roughly 60% of the area of the Middle East is a desert and receives less than 25 centimeters of rainfall each year.

A few areas, such as the coastal zones of North Africa, Turkey, and the Eastern Mediterranean, receive enough rainfall to support agriculture. The rainfall pattern in the interior of the region tends to be highly unpredictable from one year to the next. On the left is a map of the average amount of precipitation in the Middle East. The climate’ regime throughout the region is generally Mediterranean, characterized by hot dry summers and cool, wet winters. Along the Gulf region, however, as in some other parts of the region, summer temperatures can peak at 49-53° C. At the same time, in the winter, mountain villagers in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran experience freezing temperatures and heavy snows. Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East, and the driest.

It’s also the biggest country in the world without a river. Over 12 million tourists visit the UAE per year. Dubai doesn’t have a sewer system; they use poop trucks to take the city’s sewage away. The UAE is a country made up of 7 emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ra’s al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm-al-Quwain and Fujairah, and it has literacy rate 83%, which means that most people above the age of 15 can read and write. The Middle East has many different climatic regions.

On the right, are the different climatic regions of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Egypt, Kuwait, and parts of Jordan, Israel, Syria, and Iran have a Warm desert climate, while other parts of Iran, Jordan, and Syria have a cold desert climate. The reason there are different climates is because of the different types of land there are. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Egypt, Kuwait, and parts of Jordan, Israel, Syria, and Iran are desert. Turkey, Western Iran, Northern Syria, and Northern Iraq are near Mountains, which means the climate will be colder, and there will be more rainfall. Other parts of the Middle East are near the Mountains and the desert, so their climate varies based upon how close they are to the desert or the Mountains. Resources or InterdependenceOil is important; it’s like the blood of our modern life. Its products make the modern society, mainly supplying energy to power industry, heat homes and provide fuel for vehicles and airplanes to carry goods and people all over the world.

The Middle East is rich in oil. The Middle East has about 50% of the oil of the world, let alone, Saudi Arabia has 25% of the oil of the world. Middle Eastern oil is both cheap to produce and of high quality. On the left is a map of how much oil reserves there are in the Middle East. As you can see, Saudi Arabia and Iran have the most oil reserves in the Middle East, while the rest have significant reserves too. Oil production in the Middle East is unbelievable. 

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