The author starts his work by describing the land of Argentina, Argentina is a vast land of desert and plains. The country can be divided into three sections, the north covered by the forest, the centre covered by the plain and the forest, and the south which is only plain. The differences between the sections directly affect the characters of the inhabitants. The rivers of this land connect the cities, with the main being Montevideo and Buenos Ayres. Buenos Ayres is described as the only city that is able to predominate the others, but its undeveloped conditions caused by the Pampas makes it impossible. Buenos Ayres being the only city influenced by Europe, had Juan Manuel Rosas taking control over it inducing barbarism and slavery instead of civilization and liberty. The inhabitants of this land are the Spanish and the native. The Spanish predominated the districts of Cordova and San Luis, while the rest was predominated by the natives or also the negro race (which was nearly extinct). However, the negro race had the inner instinct towards progress and civilization. The town inhabited by natives of the pastoral district were Christian savages called gauchos. The city of Buenos Ayres and Cordova compared to the others have succeeded in establishing civilization. People from the cities and people from the country differ in look, manners, and ideas of progress. Sarmiento then continues saying that the reason of barbarism in such country is due to its lack of “res publica”. A description of the education of country people also follows the role of the women is to take care of domestic occupations and men to learn how to ride horses and become stronger. The gauchos who are physically developed but intellectually deprived prefer living in a state of barbarism. The second chapter follows with a description of the inhabitants of Argentina, who very much like music so much that it becomes a national habit. The “Triste” is typical of the people living in the northern districts while the “Vidalita” is typical of the gauchos. The guitar is the popular instrument of the Spanish race with the majo. These details reflect a lot the customs of the country which therefore explains the nature, causes and effects of the civil war. The inhabitants of the Argentine Republic are composed of different figures such as the Rastreadores, the Banqueanos, gauchos outlaw, and the gaucho cantores. Before the 1810 two different kinds of population existed in the Argentine Republic, the Spanish and European being the one cultivated and civilized and the others being barbarous. The country triumphs over the city and Don Juan Manuel Rosas becomes the epitome of the end of civilization and freedom.