The Woodrow Wilson Story Essay, Research PaperThe Woodrow Wilson StoryIn September, 1919, Wilson suffered a paralytic shot which limitedhis hereafter activity. After the presidential term, he lived on in retirement inWashington, deceasing February 3, 1924.Information Please Almanac.( Most history books are every bit uninformative about Wilson & # 8217 ; s unwellness. )The Twenty-fifth Amendment, covering with Presidential disablement,becomes portion of the U.S.
Constitution. It provides that theVice-President becomes Acting President if the President declareshimself handicapped, or if the Vice-President and a bulk of the Cabinetso declare.Adopted February 10, 1967Diseases need heroes: work forces or adult females who have triumphed despite the disease. Forthe kid with infantile paralysis, one could ever indicate to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whocampaigned on leg braces to go governor of New York and so president ofthe United States. For epilepsy, there is ever Joan of Arc or Napoleon. The blindand deaf have Helen Keller.
Woodrow Wilson provides a likewise inspiring narrative forboth dyslexia and shot victims & # 8211 ; but the narrative of his last two old ages in office providesa distressing illustration of how encephalon harm can impact judgement and even barricade penetrationinto one & # 8217 ; s ain disablements.Wilson had dyslexia in childhood. Imagine non larning your letters until age 9, nonreading until age 12, being a slow reader all your life. Rather than being a prescriptionfor a life as a nonintellectual ditchdigger, this was portion of the background of a adult malewho became a professor at Princeton University and the writer of a popularlyacclaimed book on George Washington.When Professor Wilson was 39, he suffered a minor shot that left him withfailing of the right arm and manus, centripetal perturbations in the tips of severalfingers, and an inability to compose in his usual right-handed mode. As frequently happensfollowing minor shots, there was recovery: his right-handed authorship ability returnedwithin a twelvemonth.Was his calling impeded? No, in 1902 he became the president of Princeton.
Butthe job recurred in 1904. In 1906 it happened once more, this clip with sightlessness inthe left oculus ( besides supplied by the left internal carotid arteria, which is likely wherecoagulums were arising which plugged up assorted little arterias in the left oculus and leftencephalon ) . While the right arm failing went off, Wilson had adequate harm to hisleft oculus that he could ne’er read with it once more. Some think that his judgement wasimpaired in the undermentioned old ages & # 8211 ; his efforts to reform Princeton academe werefrequently impractical.
By 1910 he was basically being forced out of his presidential term bythe legal guardians.But no affair & # 8211 ; in 1910 Wilson was elected the governor of New Jersey. Bing auniversity president is non the usual path to such an office ( from being a faunaprofessor at the University of Washington, Dixie Lee Ray went on to gogovernor & # 8211 ; but her stepping rocks were places as Nixon & # 8217 ; s president of the AtomicEnergy Commission and Assistant Secretary of State, non the presidential term of theuniversity! ) . From the governorship, Wilson began his successful run forpresident of the United States.
He won the Democratic nomination after a drawn-outcompetition, on the 46th ballot.During the run in 1912, Governor Wilson once more suffered from mild andimpermanent neurological jobs ( now called Transient Ischemic Attacks, or TIAs,they are minor shots without noticeable permanent effects ) . And, a month after hisstartup, President Wilson had an episode where his left arm and manus wereweak. All of the old right-sided problems had implicated the left side of the encephalon.Now it appeared that the right encephalon was besides being damaged by intellectual vasculardisease.
But he one time once more recovered, an inspiration to the 2.5 million shot victimsin the U.S. who must get by with their miscellaneous disablements.During his first term, President Wilson suffered from serious concernsaccompanied by high blood force per unit area.
The concerns became peculiarly bad at theclip of the Lusitania sinking by a German Submarine in l915. Were they merely tensenessconcerns, or possibly neurological symptoms? He was re-elected to a 2nd termin 1916, but suffered a figure of TIAs during the following two old ages as Americanengagement grew in & # 8220 ; the & # 8221 ; universe war.Edwin A. Weinstein, the neurology professor who wrote the authoritativeWoodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography, besides notes thatPresident Wilson & # 8220 ; grew more leery, close, and egocentric. & # 8221 ; An occupationaljeopardy of the presidential term & # 8211 ; or a alteration in personality ensuing from encephalon harm?The U.S. Constitution has since been amended to supply for presidential disablement inoffice, but what brain doctor would be brave adequate to declare a president disabledfrom such a history?If Woodrow Wilson & # 8217 ; s encephalon had suffered no farther harm, the history of thefollowing decennaries could hold been really different.
For Wilson in 1916 wantedGermany defeated but non crushed ; he wanted Germany to be a feasible member ofthe proposed League of Nations. He was convinced that a determined peace Uwouldbe accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an unbearable forfeit, and that wouldgo forth a sting, a bitterness, a acrimonious memory upon which the footings of peace wouldremainder, non for good, but merely as upon quicksand. & # 8221 ; The overthrow of the Kaiser in1918 and his replacing by a democratic authorities raised Wilson & # 8217 ; s hopes forrehabilitating Germany. At the 1919 peace conference in Paris, he argued againstGallic attempts to seek the ex-Kaiser and to demand punitory reparations.But so President Wilson all of a sudden took ailment during the conference: he hademesis, high febrility, and the other marks of holding caught the grippe which wasbrushing Europe and subsequently much of the universe. It turned out that the virus hadaffected his respiratory system, bosom, encephalon, and prostate. Indeed, judging from someof the mental symptoms ( his top adjutant noted that, merely overnight, Wilson & # 8217 ; s personalitychanged ) , Wilson may hold suffered another shot at this clip or, as Dr. Weinsteinsuggests, have besides caught the often associated virus of phrenitis lethargica( this is the virus whose victims frequently developed Parkinson & # 8217 ; s disease old ages subsequently,Oliver Sacks wrote about them in Awakenings ) .
Even before the grippe onslaught, his compulsion with secretiveness was pronounced:none of the other American peace commissioners were secluded to President Wilson & # 8217 ; sbelieving. Bedridden, Wilson became haunted with being overheard, with guardinghis documents. In add-on to the paranoia, he became euphoric and about manic attimes following the bedfast stage of the unwellness. He even became socially surpassingin ways rather uncharacteristic of the usually untalkative Wilson.But most contact was Wilson & # 8217 ; s alteration in attitude toward the Germans: now hehimself proposed that the former Emperor be tried.
Whereas he had antecedentlyinsisted that the German delegates be granted full diplomatic privileges at theconference, now he was disdainful of them. Herbert Hoover, who was at that place,noted the alteration in Wilson & # 8217 ; s behaviour: before the grippe, Wilson was willing tolisten to advice, was acute, speedy to hold on necessities and unhesitating in hisdecisions. Afterward, he had oversights in memory, he groped for thoughts, he wasobsessed with & # 8220 ; precedents. & # 8221 ;To inquire our Twenty-fifth Amendment inquiry once more, it seems likely that moderndoctors would be able to name the encephalon harm taking to such a personalityalteration.
They would likely urge to their patient that he voluntarily stepdown. But on such grounds, would they have been able to carry the VicePresident and a bulk of the Cabinet to coerce the President to step aside? One canconceive of the treatment in the Cabinet as the brain doctors tried to educate them onhow encephalon harm can modify and impact judgement. Those non acquainted withneurologically induced personality alterations would be more likely to concentrate oninterwoven issues that they understood better & # 8211 ; political issues such as the properattitude toward the Germans, for illustration, or the allowances that must be made forpeople under emphasis.It is difficult to appreciate personality alterations due to encephalon harm until you & # 8217 ; ve seensuch a patient, before and after. The first 1 I of all time saw was a adult male whose caput hadbeen injured in a auto accident the twenty-four hours before ; one temporal lobe ( at least ) wasswollen as a consequence of the concussion. On the door to the patient & # 8217 ; s room, the nurseshad posted a mark: & # 8220 ; Do non give this patient matches! & # 8221 ; It wasn & # 8217 ; t that smoke wasprohibited & # 8211 ; he was badly lighting lucifers and throwing them around theroom. There was nil lethargic about this adult male: he was bright-eyed, aggressivewith the physicians, badgering the nurses, and by and large moving like a crewman in port lookingfor a good clip. Could he hold walked, it would certainly hold been with a swagman.
Possibly fortuitously, he besides had a big plaster dramatis personae on one leg ; otherwise, it mighthave been hard to carry him to stay in the infirmary where his encephalon puffinesscould be controlled.One hebdomad subsequently when once more halting in to analyze all the patients on theneurosurgical service, I saw a adult male with an indistinguishable encephalon hurt. This adult male was mild,most hesitating in his traffics with the staff, a quiet unnoticeable psyche who normallyaverted his eyes when speaking with anyone. After we left the room, I commented thatthe brain surgeons & # 8217 ; celebrity must hold spread, that they were surely being sent onetemporal-lobe bruise patient after another. No, the go toing brain surgeon saidwith a smiling, that adult male was the same patient that I had seen the old hebdomad. I wasexcessively astonished to mind that I had fallen into a neatly laid trap which had likelybeen sprung upon a six insuffficiently observant medical pupils andoccupants already that hebdomad. But which was his existent personality? The present meekone.
His household had, of class, been perplexed by the alteration and had told thedoctors what his existent personality was similar. So now they knew that their patient wasacquiring back to normal. And, mirabile dictu, he could besides walk once more & # 8211 ; there was nolonger a dramatis personae on the leg! But most instances of personality alteration are non this dramatic,nor can most be treated with a leg dramatis personae and water pills. President Wilson & # 8217 ; s is a moretypical instance & # 8211 ; though, because of his place, holding wider branchings.President Wilson returned place with a pact set uping the League of Nations.
His efforts to acquire the U.S.Senate to sign it were gawky and autocratic, non theactions of a skilled politician used to covering with the Congress. Frustrated after fivemonths, he decided to take his instance straight to the people. Within a few yearss aftershiping upon a talking circuit of the West in September 1919, he had developeddual vision ( this normally isn & # 8217 ; t either left or right hemisphere but suggests problem inthe encephalon root ) . Wilson insisted on go oning on the speech production circuit, and severalhebdomads subsequently, he became paralyzed on his left side: an unmistakable mark ofright-hemisphere malfunction.
Another hebdomad subsequently, after returning to the White House,he suffered a monolithic right-hemisphere shot. He lost vision in the left ocular fieldwhich, because of the old problem with the left oculus, left him with vision from merelyone-half of one oculus ( this is one of those unusual sets of facts which we inflict uponmedical pupils in a neuroanatomy quiz, to see if they can calculate out that there musthave been two separate jobs instead than the usual 1 ) . Wilson could experiencenil on the left side of his organic structure, besides non being able to travel it voluntarily.Indeed he wholly neglected the left side of his organic structure.Though the linguistic communication maps of Wilson & # 8217 ; s left hemisphere were non affected bythe right-hemisphere shot, his voice ne’er regained the emotional inflexions andresonance of his earlier old ages ; this facet of address ( called inflection ) is now knownto be controlled preponderantly by the right hemisphere.
His right-hemisphere shot besides produced a funny consequence: Wilson denied he hadsuffered a shot. If you have non antecedently encountered the denial-of-illnesssyndrome, you may happen this unbelievable. How could person whose left organic structure wasparalyzed deny that something had happened? He so considered himselfabsolutely fit to be President ( he fired his secretary of province, who had dared to name aCabinet meeting to discourse the unwellness with the President & # 8217 ; s doctor ) .This denial-of-illness syndrome is characteristic of right parietal-lobe harm ;some patients will even deny that their left arm and leg are portion of their ain organic structure.Wilson simply referred to himself as & # 8220 ; lame. & # 8221 ; His spacial sense was disturbed: whenthe Secret Service took him out for a thrust around town, Wilson insisted they drivereally easy and so demanded that the Secret Service pursuit and collar a driver whopassed them & # 8211 ; for hurrying!Had the Constitutional amendment on Presidential disablement been in consequence inSeptember 1919, Wilson & # 8217 ; s physicians should hold been able to declare Wilson unfit tocarry out presidential responsibilities. But would they have done so? Like others, they couldhave been drawn into an luxuriant cover-up to continue presidential authorization.
Thehistory of Wilson & # 8217 ; s unwellness gives us no soothing reassurance about how either theWhite House insiders or the physicians would hold performed. The President & # 8217 ; sdoctor, Cary T. Grayson, was asked by Secretary of State Lansing to subscribe acertification of disablement four yearss after the monolithic shot, but he refused.
In February1920, when the White House was publishing glowing studies on the President & # 8217 ; s wellnessand abilities, a distinguished sawbones, Hugh H. Young, reported to the imperativeness. He saidthat the President had suffered merely a little damage of his left arm and leg and that& # 8220 ; the utmost energy and clarity of his mental procedures had non abated in the slightestgrade. . .
he is in better form than before the illness. & # 8221 ; Dr. Young summarized bystating that & # 8220 ; you can state that the President is able-minded and able-bodied, and thathe is giving glorious attending to the personal businesss of state.
& # 8221 ;Dr. Weinstein & # 8217 ; s first-class life notes that at the clip of Dr. Young & # 8217 ; sstatement, President Wilson & # 8217 ; s left arm was useless, he could hardly walk, he couldnon keep himself upright so as to work at a desk, he could non read more than a fewlines at a clip, he was capable to effusions of pique and cryings, and his periods ofalertness alternated with periods of lassitude and backdown. And that PresidentWilson still insisted that he was simply feeble.Who ran the authorities? Gene Smith, in his book When the CheeringStopped, says that the President & # 8217 ; s married woman and physicians did & # 8212 ; and that pandemonium andsecretiveness reigned. Remember, this is non a scientific discipline fiction narrative, nor a pretendWhite House thriller: this is the narrative of Woodrow Wilson & # 8217 ; s last two old ages in theWhite House.
It non merely happened, but it has merely late made it into the historybooks: about all the books on Wilson reference none of this medical history, eitherfrom an ignorance of neurology ( it was merely & # 8220 ; flu & # 8221 ; followed by a & # 8220 ; paralytic shot & # 8221 ; ) orfrom the permanent effects of the cover-up conducted by Wilson & # 8217 ; s White House insiders.If the history books omit such a important event so that we can non larn from it, howcan we avoid reiterating such history?The pact fall ining the U.S. to the League of Nations was defeated in the Senate,stultifying the League. Dr. Weinstein & # 8217 ; s sentiment is that Wilson & # 8217 ; s shot is what made thedifference: & # 8220 ; It is about certain that had Wilson non been so stricken, his political accomplishmentsand his installation with linguistic communication would hold bridged the spread & # 8221 ; between the two opposingsides in the Senate, much as he had done on other occasions predating the Paris trip.President Wilson persisted in his attempt to win renomination for a 3rd term.Pictures appeared before the 1920 Democratic convention demoing Wilson in rightprofile ( the left side of his face was paralyzed ) seated at a desk keeping a pen.
ButWilson had no support. The Democratic party leaders prevented his name from beingplaced in nomination ; James M. Cox and Franklin Delano Roosevelt were nominatedfor president and frailty president. The Republican campaigner, Warren Gamaliel Harding,won the election with the biggest landslide ballot in recorded history.
He has beendescribed in retrospect as a & # 8220 ; handsome and affable adult male, undiscriminating in hisassociates, missing in political thoughts or fortitude. . . wholly unfitted for thepresidency.
& # 8221 ; American historiographers, when polled on who was the worst president inhistory, on a regular basis choice Harding.Many feel that some effects of Wilson & # 8217 ; s unwellness outlived his presidential term ( hecompleted his term of office and lived until 1924, lasting Harding ) and were to beseen in the events of the following decennaries & # 8211 ; in the black German rising prices of the1920s during the reparations exacted by the Allies, in the resulting reaction to societalupset which led to the rise of the genocidal Nazis, and in a 2nd universe war. Allhad multiple causes, but the pre-influenza Wilson anticipated many. WoodrowWilson was a great broad and reformist, the first universe leader to fire the multitudes witha vision of universe peace, and a brave individual who repeatedly conquered theafflictions of his chronic intellectual vascular disease.
At a critical occasion in history, hisencephalon failed him & # 8211 ; but non evidently plenty to take him from office and Lashkar-e-Taiba otherstake up the reins. During the last two old ages of his term following the Paris unwellness,Woodrow Wilson was unfit to take the United States. He no longer had the samejudgement and personality as the adult male whom the electors had elected.Merely as a attorney tries to cover all the improbable heritage possibilities whenpulling up a will, so lawgivers must seek to supply for an orderly sequence whenthe holder of a critical office is disabled & # 8211 ; which can go on in a figure of ways.Would the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which seems so unequal to cover withWilson & # 8217 ; s earlier jobs, have covered the concluding Wilson calamity?Even if brain doctors could name a serious alteration in perceptual abilities or inpersonality, could they convert the President to voluntarily step aside? Whathappens when a strongwilled President & # 8217 ; s judgement, like Wilson & # 8217 ; s, is clouded by hisunwellness? Judging from the trouble that doctors have in carrying ordinary patientswith right-parietal-lobe harm that they are sick, the doctors would likely holdbeen rebuffed. Could they so convince the Vice President and a bulk of theCabinet to advise Congress that the President was disabled? The Twenty-fifthAmendment seems to presume that either a President will be rational plenty todeclare disablement personally, or that the President will be in coma, unable to interferein the Cabinet & # 8217 ; s determination. Suppose that, like Wilson, a President were to fire theoppugning Cabinet members foremost? The Twenty-fifth Amendment would look non tocover the most serious and most drawn-out Presidential disablement yet encountered inmore than two centuries and 40 Presidents. It remains to be seen if theConstitution & # 8217 ; s disablement commissariats function any better than those of the Divine Rightof Kings ( which allowed George III & # 8211 ; the bete noire of the American settlers & # 8211 ; toregulation England for many decennaries while insane on and off, even confined to astraitjacket at times ) .
Neurology was established as a medical forte in the 19th century by aseries of great physician-investigators, but the acknowledgment of elusive rational shortagesin shot patients was merely get downing in Wilson & # 8217 ; s clip. Because such & # 8220 ; highermaps & # 8221 ; can non be studied easy in experimental animate beings, advancement has been slow incomparing to other countries of encephalon research. In 1920 a singular epoch began, duringwhich the person nervus cells have been explored, the physiological reactions extensively studied,great inroads made into understanding the maps of sensory and motor systems,and many specialised cortical countries identified. We now know more aboutdevelopmental dyslexia, from which Wilson ab initio suffered, and about recovery ofmap after shots, which permitted Wilson to retrieve from his many earliershots so successfully. We now have diagnostic techniques such as computerizedtomographic ( CT ) scans and magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) which would holddetected much of Wilson & # 8217 ; s encephalon harm. We have curative techniques such asvascular surgery which, if performed at age 39 after Wilson & # 8217 ; s first shot, might holdcleaned out the arterial liner jobs in the carotids which likely formed thecoagulums.
Yet we still lack a organic structure of dependable physiological and anatomical facts with whichto understand personality alteration and denial of unwellness. One must trust more on the artof the experient doctor in such instances, non on the difficult facts of scientific discipline dispensedby machines. But it is non clear whether even the most adept of modern doctorswould be able to protect the universe from the effects of a similar encephalonmalfunction in a modern president.