The Sydney opera house is one of the world’s most
recognisable and unforgettable  concrete
framed buildings in the world the original planning started in 1955, it was initially
held as a competition with the aim of producing a building that was a venue
that could be used for multiple purposes the specifications were they wanted a
hall big enough to hold 3,000 guests and a smaller one to hold 1,200 cost was
not factored in the design phase out of the 233 entry’s only one stood out
above all the rest and that was Danish architect Jørn Utzon who was employed
by The Ove Arup and partners, his
design was so unique it kept making a return from the rejected submissions
pile.

 

The construction started on the second of March 1959
and finally concluded in 1973 there was a ceremony that was held to mark the
start of the construction the architect presented a bronze plaque that would be
placed where the two great halls meet NSW Premier Joseph Cahill secured the plaque in
place almost simultaneously the jackhammering started and construction was
under way.

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There were two main problems that faced stage one,
first is the intended site that was to be built on had not been surveyed
accurately at the time the competition was purposed. The site was made up of
alluvial deposit which is made up of silts, clays, sands and gravel this process
is caused by rivers and sea spilling over the banks. The second problem is that
the weight of the roof at this stage is unknown.

 

The construction work was undertaken by M
R Hornibrook the whole process took sixteen years to complete as there were so
many problems during the construction phase there were so many delays. The
design of the roof proved to be very problematic this is one of the reasons for
the time delays in 1961 a team of engineers decided to make the roof shells out
of a sphere as the angle of the curvature stays the same at any given point
this allowed them to move on with the construction.

 

The Sydney opera houses materials consist of a
reinforced concrete frame the structure of the shells were pre-fabricated and
the tiles that cover the shells are made in Sweden they are a mixture of white
and cream but from a lot of angles the appear just white the facades is made of
a minimum steel frame with polarized glass, the majority of the interior
materials are pink garnet purchased from Tarana and plywood which is locally
scored form the surrounding area of new south wales.

 

The original design for the all glass windows was to
be a timber framing they also experimented with concrete but due to the highly
corrosive sea side atmosphere the only option was to use a steel frame the
architect Jørn
Utzon wanted an all glass wall and before he resigned
from the project he left a clear picture of how he wanted the glass walls to
look to summarise, the frame work should not act as a support to the shells the
glass wall should appear as if it is hanging from the shells.

 

To adapt to the climate around the opera house there
is a weatherproof membrane covering the shell and protecting it from the
corrosive weather conditions.       

 

The cost of the whole construction process was estimated
to be 7 million Australian dollars however the actual cost was a staggering 102
million that puts the cost 1,457% over the expected budget. 

 

Concrete is one of the most commonly used building
martial it has been used since the Roman era, over the years it has developed
with different types of mixes being created for the specific job the reason it
is used a lot is due to the raw materials being easily accessible the
ingredients can be found in almost all countries in the world the raw
ingredients are lime stone, clay and iron they are all crushed then transfer to
a kiln the mixture is then heated to temperatures reaching 270 degrees
fortnight it is now partially molten forming a new marble sized component
called clinker once this is cooled it is then grinded in to a fine powder. This
in the glue that binds all the necessary ingredients to make concrete they are
aggregate, sand and water the water actually has a chemical reaction with the
cement that allows it to glue all the components together.        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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