There are two types of diabetes (Type 1 andType 2 Diabetes). Type 1 diabetes, only occurs in 5-10% of diabetic cases, ittends to occur in early childhood/early adulthood.
It is caused by the body’simmune system destroying its own insulin-making cells (Beta-cells) of thepancreas. It requires consistent treatment through the use of insulininjections (Chamberlain, et al., 2016).Type 2 diabetes, which I will discussthroughout this paper, is when there is a progressive loss of insulin secretionand in most cases there in an insulin resistance (Chamberlain, et al., 2016).Type 2 diabetes can be completely prevented and in most cases it occurs inpeople that either have a sedentary lifestyle and/or poor diet. Prediabetes can also be diagnosed whenblood glucose levels are higher than the norm, but not quite high enough to beclassified as diabetes.
When affected with higher blood glucose level there isan increased chance of developing type 2 diabetes, this can beprevented/delayed with lifestyle changes, such as becoming more active andchanging your dietary habits. I will discuss this further throughout.Benefitsof Physical Activity with Type 2 DiabetesThere have been thousands ofstudies/researches conducted in the area of ‘how physical activity can preventtype 2 diabetes’ but saying this there is a lot of conflicting views/results.Some studies have shown how aerobic exercise is more beneficial to prevent type2 diabetes rather than resistance training and some say resistance training ismore beneficial. In my opinion from looking through papers a combination ofboth would be the most beneficiary.Aerobic training has been seen to havedramatic impact on the human body, it increases insulin sensitivity,mitochondrial density, immune function, cardiac output, oxidative enzymes, etc.(Garber, et al.
, 2011). It has been proven that moderate to high intensity aerobicactivity is associated to lowering overall mortality risks in both type 1 andtype 2 diabetes.In people suffering with type 2 diabetes, regularaerobic training has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, buthigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) really rapidly enhances insulinsensitivity and glycemic control in adults (Little, et al., 2011). I believethis study by Little, et al., really shows us how important not only aerobictraining is, but also HIIT.
In a study by Roberts, et al., 2013 acutebouts of exercise and regular physical activity can really modify the insulinaction in the muscle and liver. This is actually backed up in a study byNielsen et al., where they have actually proven that aerobic exercise actually increasesmuscle glucose uptake fivefold through insulin independent mechanisms. Afterthese acute bouts of exercise glucose uptake remains elevated for up to 48hours in insulin dependent mechanisms.When people with type 2 diabetes part takein resistance training they improve their glycemic control; insulin resistance,blood pressure, etc. but it has been shown not to have as significant of animpact to aerobic exercise (Gordon, et al.
, 2009).The combination of regular aerobic/endurancetraining with resistance training may provide the greatest impact on glucoseuptake an insulin resistance (Wing et al., 2013), which in my opinion is thebest way of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Not only does it reduce therisk of type 2 diabetes but it works the different energy systems in the bodywhich is always a positive.It also depends on the intensity of theexercise undertaken as, as little as twenty minutes exercise with near-maximalheart rate will result in twenty-four hours regular insulin activity (Van Dijk,et al., 2012).