Titanium samples of
dimensions 2.5 cm × 1 cm × 0.025 cm were obtained from 99.95% purity titanium
sheet. Samples were ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and distilled water,
dried in a warm air stream and sealed with insulation resin leaving only surface
of 1.5 cm × 1 cm accessible to the electrolyte. The experimental setup used for
PEO is described in Ref. 18. Water solution of 10 g/L sodium phosphate
dodecahydrate (Na3PO4·12H2O) was used as supporting
electrolyte. High purity CdS powder (Sigma Aldrich) was added to supporting
electrolyte in concentrations up to 8 g/L. Temperature of the electrolyte was maintained at (10 ± 1)
°C during PEO. Titanium samples were anodized at constant current
density of 150 mA/cm2.

Surface morphology was analyzed by scanning
electronic microscopy (SEM) JEOL
840A equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The ratio of titanium and cadmium in formed coatings was determined
using a Shimadzu XRF-1800 wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence
spectrometer. Crystalline phases were identi?ed by X-ray di?raction
(XRD) in Bragg–Brentano geometry using a Rigaku Ultima IV diffractometer. Diffraction
peaks observed on XRD patterns are identified using Rigaku PDXL 2 software and
COD database. The Raman spectra were excited using the 532 nm diode solid state
laser, with the laser power of 10 mW, and collected on a Thermo Scientific DXR Raman microscope equipped with research optical
microscope and CCD detector. UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were recorded using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer
(Shimadzu UV-3600) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded using a Horiba
Jobin Yvon Fluorolog FL3-22 spectrofluorometer, with Xe lamp as the excitation
light source at room temperature.

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For photocatalytic activity evaluation
of TiO2/CdS coatings, the photodegradation of aqueous methyl orange
(MO) solution at room temperature under simulated solar irradiation was used as
a model reaction. The experimental setup and procedures used for photocatalytic
measurement are described in Ref. 19. 

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