IntroductionLocal Area Network.

LAN. is a information communications web linking terminuss. computing machines. and pressmans within a edifice or other geographically limited countries” ( Haugdahl. 1999. p.

76 ) . These devices may be connected through wired overseas telegrams or wireless links. LAN is normally owned by an person or a individual entity such as an organisation. and the users communicate with each other by directing electronic mail or by chew the fating. In a LAN engineering. “applications are stored in the LAN waiter” ( Haugdahl. 1999.

p. 76 ) . leting the users to interchange resources with each other at the LAN waiter. LANs can convey informations at a rate faster than informations transferred over a telephone line. and can besides be connected to other LANs. The major LAN engineerings are Ethernet and Token Ring. This paper discussed these two engineerings in item.

EthernetIntroduction– Ethernet is by far the most widely used Local Area Networking. LAN. engineering used in the universe today. “Ethernet was the inspiration of Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs”( Haugdahl. 1999. p 77 ) The criterion was created at “Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre. PARC in 1973” ( Haugdahl. 1999.

p. 77 ) . for networking a group of computing machines that could all utilize a new Laser pressman that Xerox had made. “The original version of the Ethernet operated at 2. 9 Mbps” ( Haugdahl. 1999.

p. 77 ) . a velocity that was chosen because it was a multiple of the clock velocity of the original Alto computing machine created by Xerox in 1972 as a personal computing machine targeted at research.The original Ethernet criterion was developed over the following few old ages. and this resulted in a paper “Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching for Local Computer Networks” published in the Communications of ACM.

Vol. 19. No. 5. July 1976.

pp. 395-404( Shepard. 2002. p. 84 ) . Later a pool of three companies – “Digital Equipment Corporation. Intel. and Xerox.

further developed the Ethernet II or the DIX criterion” ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree. 2003. p.

207 ) . These companies used the networking engineering to add networking capablenesss to their merchandise line. Ethernet has adapted over the old ages running on newer devices and running media and “can now run on coaxal overseas telegrams. twisted-pair wiring and fiberoptic yoke” ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree.

2003. p. 207 ) .Purpose and Function– The initial topographic point for the use of Ethernet was for linking office equipments.

as is seen above. The criterion is reasonably much an international criterion for this purpose even in the present yearss. Ethernet is fundamentally a coach construction in which all the signals are consecutive carried on a individual wire. “The Ethernet criterion extends merely over hardware and signal degrees” ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree. 2003. p. 207 ) An “Ethernet web can run under a assortment of web protocols” ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree.

2003. p. 207 ) ; it is even possible to back up two different web protocols at the same time on an Ethernet overseas telegram.Accepted topographic points for use– “Ethernet has established itself as the de facto criterion for Personal computer webs” ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree. 2003. p. 207 ) . It has become the most widely used communications medium.

Due to its present broad credence. Ethernet has besides been suggested for usage in many diverse application Fieldss such as mechanizations. and even embedded systems ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree.

2003. p. 208 ) .Professionals and Cons–Following are the advantages with Ethernet

  1. One of the major advantages of the Ethernet is that it is “already compatible with the bing industry-standard Personal computer package and hardware” . Personal computers by and large include Ethernet interfaces and all the commercial operating systems have constitutional Ethernet drivers ( Bedell. 2002.

    p. 28 ) .

  2. As compared to token-passing webs Ethernet has already proved to be scalable with high public presentation.

    Ethernet besides has longer-range distances “up to 150km when used in fiber based-LX manner. The criterion is full-duplex. symmetrical and switched” ( Bedell. 2002. p. 28 ) .

  3. A chief ground for the Ethernet going a de facto criterion is because it is less expensive to implement. Besides since Ethernet has been germinating for about3 decennaries.

    there is a big pool of professionals available who understand the criterion ( Bedell. 2002. p. 28 )

  4. Ethernet supports high bandwidth applications and is a dependable medium with high degree of security ( Bedell.

    2002. p. 28 )

Following are the disadvantages with Ethernet

  1. Despite the low cost. Ethernet still requires new overseas telegrams to be installed for the place web
  2. The Ethernet besides requires a important sum of constellations by the users. which is non ever easy
  3. Ethernet is a non-deterministic protocol and does non back up any message prioritization ( Hristu-Varsakelis & A ; Levine. 2005. p.

    665 ) .

  4. Because of the needed lower limit valid frame size. “Ethernet uses a big frame size to convey a little sum of informations” ( Hristu-Varsakelis & A ; Levine. 2005.

    p. 665 ) . This causes high traffic tonss. which are a major job because they greatly affect informations throughput and clip holds may go boundless.

Market portion– Ethernet dominates over “90 per centum of the installed webs worldwide” ( Ballew.

1997. p. 34 ) . Ethernet webs are used in all major industries where the demand for high-speed dependable communications is a necessity.Current degree of execution– There are three types of Ethernet. chiefly distinguished from one another by velocity:

  1. 10-Mbps Ethernet – This was the original Ethernet criterion which was enhanced in 1980 and became known as IEEE 802. 3 The Ethernet uses shielded distorted brace overseas telegram. unshielded distorted brace overseas telegram or coaxal overseas telegram.

    and works at a maximal velocity of 10 M spots per second ( Andrews. 2003. p. 469 ) .

  2. 100-Mbps Ethernet or Fast Ethernet – This is the improved version of 10-Mbps Ethernet. and is besides known sometimes as 100BaseT. The maximal informations velocity is 100 M spots per second. This standard uses either a shielded distorted brace overseas telegram or a unshielded distorted brace overseas telegram.

    The criterion is downward compatible with 10-Mbps Ethernet. Two fluctuations of 100BaseT are 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX. the latter utilizing optical fibres ( Andrews. 2003.

    p. 469 ) .

  3. Gigabit Ethernet – This is the latest version of Ethernet and is besides known as 1000-Mbps Ethernet. because of the maximal informations velocity. The protocol uses twisted-pair overseas telegrams or optical fibres. It is used for high-velocity LAN anchors and for server-to-server connexions ( Andrews. 2003.

    p. 469 ) .

Token RingingIntroduction– Token Ring is the 2nd most widely used Local Area web. LAN. engineering after Ethernet. “IBM originally developed the Token Ring in 1970.

The recognition for the engineering nevertheless goes to a chap named Olaf Soderblum. who developed the nominal ring go throughing web to link IBM mainframes in Sweden” ( Shipley. 2002. p. 24 ) . However.

the IBM Token Ring Network. TRN. did non look on the scene until 1985. when the protocol was “standardized by IEEE as 802.

5 with a velocity of 4Mbps” ( Shipley. 2002. p. 24 ) .Soon IBM front terminal processors. such as the “IBM 3745s. were shipped with Token Ring interfaces” ( Shipley.

2002. p. 24 ) .

At the clip Token Ring provided a fast LAN medium. and was an immediate success with IBM clients. chiefly because aside form Personal computer Internet. it was the lone LAN that IBM truly endorsed at the clip. The “market portion of Token Ring was about 35 % till the in-between 1990s” ( Shipley. 2002. p.

24 ) . even though it was an expensive option to the Ethernet.Purpose and Function– Token Ring is much more suited than Ethernet for “hold sensitive applications like the IBM Systems Network Architecture. SNA” . Token Ring is besides recommended for image applications ( Shipley. 2002. p.

24 )Accepted topographic points for use– Token Ring LANs. like Ethernet LANs are common in office environments. associating personal computing machines for the intent of informations file transportation. electronic messaging. mainframe computing machine interaction and file sharing.

Token Ring is the best pick for a model if the public presentation of the web is the most of import concern and non the web up clip ( Mueller & A ; Ogletree. 2003. p.

210 ) .Professionals and Cons–Following are the advantages with Token Rings

  1. The chief advantage of Token Ring is that “all the nodes of the web have equal opportunity of conveying the information” ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 ) .
  2. Token Ring web uses the available bandwidth more expeditiously than Ethernet ( Shinder.

    2001. p. 145 ) .

  3. Token Ring can supply double MAC address support. which Ethernet can non supply ( Shinder.

    2001. p. 145 ) .

  4. Token Ring is a extremely dependable architecture. and its nominal passing strategy eliminates informations hits ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 )
  5. Token Ring can besides observe and insulate a faulty node.

    so the web is non brought down by the failure of one computing machine ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 ) .

Following are the disadvantages with Token Rings

  1. Ethernet devices are simpler than Token Ring devices ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 ) .
  2. Economies of scale make Ethernet much less expensive than Token Ring ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 ) .

  3. Ethernet besides overcomes its efficiency job by being much faster than the Token Ring ( Shinder. 2001. p. 145 ) .
  4. A major restriction with the Token Ring is besides its handiness.

    while many present twenty-four hours machines come equipped with Ethernet. or one can be installed easy. the same can non be said for a Token Ring Interface ( Ballew. 1997. p. 34 ) .

Market portion– While Token pealing webs are non about every bit plentiful as Ethernet Networks. they are found at most major information centres running IBM mainframes. The ground for this is because Token ring webs are more expensive to implement than Ethernet webs ( Ballew. 1997. p.

34 ) .Current degree of execution– Token Ring. as is mentioned above. is a set of web criterions developed by IBM that define a complete web system.

The criterion is wholly incompatible with Ethernet and is considered as its rival. Token Ring webs use a Ring topology. most normally today as a star ring.

The topologies here are wired into a star constellation utilizing shielded distorted brace overseas telegram or unshielded distorted brace overseas telegram. The webs are classified into: “little movable webs that support up to 96 nodes and 12 Multi-station Access Units. MAU and. big non-movable webs that support up to 260 nodes and 30 MAUs” ( Barrett & A ; King. 2005.

p. 136-137 ) .MentionsAndrews J. 2003.Ascent and Repair with Jean Andrews. Published: Thomson Course Technology.

Massachusetts. ISBN 1592001122. 9781592001125Ballew SM. 1997.Pull offing IP Networks with Cisco Routers. 1stEdition. Published: O’Reilly. ISBN 1565923200.

9781565923201Barrett D. King T. 2005.Computer Networking Illuminated. Published: Jones & A ; Bartlett Publishers. Massachusetts.

ISBN 0763726761. 9780763726768Bedell P. 2002.Gigabit Ethernet for Metro Area Networks. Published: McGraw-Hill Professional. New York. ISBN 0071393897.

9780071393898Haugdahl JS. 1999.Network Analysis and Troubleshooting. Published: Addison-Wesley. New Jersey.

ISBN 0201433192. 9780201433197Hristu-Varsakelis D. Levine WS. 2005.

Handbook of Networked and Embedded Control Systems: Necrotizing enterocolitis. Published: Springer. Maryland. ISBN 0817632395. 9780817632397Mueller S. Ogletree TW.Upgrading and Repairing Networks. 4ThursdayEdition.

Published: Que Publishing. Indianapolis. ISBN 0789728176. 9780789728173Shepard S. 2002.Metro Area Networking. Published: McGraw-Hill Professional. New York.

ISBN 0071399143. 9780071399142Shinder DL. 2001.Computer Networking Necessities. Published: Cisco Press. Indianapolis. ISBN 1587130386.

9781587130380Shipley B. 2002.Installer’s Guide to Local Area Networks. Published: Thomson Delmar Learning. New York.

ISBN 0766833747. 9780766833746

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