Policy analysis is one activity for which there can be no fixed plan, for policy analysis is synonymous with creativeness, which may be stimulated by theory and sharpened by pattern, which can be learned but non taught, ( Wildavsky, 1979 ) .
There is no universally accepted definition of public policy. Different forces define it otherwise ; nevertheless, possibly the most dramatic description of public policy for the present writer comes from Hill ( 2005 ) were he states that public policy is a complex determination web ( web of determinations ) that take topographic point over clip and is non normally expressed in a individual determination but in series of determinations. Policies constantly change over clip, and are dynamic instead than inactive. The policy procedure does non be in a desert island, and a form of actions over a period of clip constitutes public policies ( pp. 7-8 ) .
Dye ( 2007 ) defines public policy as “ whatever authoritiess choose to make or non to make, ” ( p.1 ) . However he continues by explicating that public policy is the survey of political scientific discipline and is more than survey of governmental establishments ; that can be studied for three primary grounds. First, public policy can be studied for scientific ground, in order to derive an apprehension of the causes and effects of policy determinations, and to better the cognition about the society. Second, public policy can be studied for professional advice, so as to understand the causes and effects of policy to use societal scientific discipline cognition to the solution of practical jobs. And eventually, public policy can be studied for political intents in an effort to guarantee that the state adopts the “ right ” policies to accomplish the “ right ” ends ( pp. 3-4 ) .
2.1.1 Tourism and Public Policy
Jenkins and Hall ( 1995 ) depict touristry as one of the largest ( if non the largest ) , industry in the universe, and they expect it to go on grow ( p. 1 ) . Tourism, besides from being a major economic, environmental, and socio-cultural force, Richter ( 1989 ) states that it is “ a extremely political phenomenon, ” ( p. 2 ) . Jenkins and Hall ( 1995 ) see an pressing demand for touristry public policy surveies ( p. 1 ) . Each touristry policy in the devising procedure requires to be evaluated and monitored from the beginning and throughout the whole procedure. This will enable options ; and since touristry is huge and may impact a large figure of people, the best alternate demands to be considered. The survey of touristry policy offers an chance to the whole population, as it non merely effects the touristry industry but besides consequence the whole population.
Hall ( 1994 ) believes that:
The latter tendency has led to authoritiess frequently going entrepreneurial in their engagement with touristry in order to increase the fiscal part of touristry to authorities income. Therefore, authoritiess has progressively been involved in the publicity and selling of finish and in the joint development of tourer attractive forces or installations with the private sector ( p. 35 ) .
Harmonizing to Mill and Morrison ( as cited by Hall, 1994 ) authoritiess can excite touristry in three ways. First, by fiscal inducements such as low involvements and revenue enhancement inducements towards the touristry industry. Second, by patronizing research for the general benefit of the touristry industry. And thirdly, touristry can be stimulated by selling, publicity and visitant service, by and large aimed at bring forthing higher touristry demands ( p. 41 ) .[ 1 ]
Hall ( 2004 ) states authoritiess are imaging finishs in order to pull touristry. However, he adds that sometimes states require re-imaging in order to do tourers pass and make employment ( p. 153 ) . For case Bolivia is imaged as a state full of poorness and political instability due to its part in the bosom of South America. International tourers avoid instable states as they fear that their safety will be in danger due to drugs, corruptness, violent protests, misdemeanor of human rights, and civil wars. “ Bolivia is utilizing state branding to travel beyond trickle down touristry. ” They are re-imaging it for its rich natural resources and diverseness. It is a absorbing alone topographic point ( Aguirre & A ; Renjel, 2008, pp. 165 – 168 ) . However re-imaging may non ever be positive on the finish, and the civilization and environment could be harmed. Hall ( 2004 ) adds that advertisement topographic points will make anticipation to the viewing audiences, and they will anticipate what they are seeing. Thus the authorities must guarantee non to upset the visitants ( p. 178 ) .
Crick ( 1989 ) :
We now live in a post-Marxian universe of the ‘political economic system of the mark ‘ ; the accent has shifted away from production itself to image, advertisement and ingestion. We are now interested in what Buadrillard has termed the ‘mirror of production ‘ , and touristry, being so much a affair of leisure, ingestion and image, is an basically ( post- ) modern activity ( p. 333 ) .
Anholt ( 2007a ) , an independent policy adviser who is depicted of developing the constructs of state stigmatization, found in his surveies that in today ‘s competition among states for touristry, many authoritiess need to develop a state trade name in order to excite the touristry industry. He believes that the impression of trade name direction for states has established itself as one of the key tools for fight in the modern universe ( parity. 5 ) . With branding states, “ will bit by bit drive the state from the image it has inherited towards the one it needs and deserves, ” ( Dinnie, 2008, p. 23 ) . In another survey Anholt ( 2007b ) insists that “ trade name direction for states should be treated as a constituent of national policy, non a subject in its ain right, a “ run ” , or an activity that can be practised individually from conventional be aftering administration, economic development or statesmanship, ” ( p. 80 ) .
2.2.0 State Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice
Dinne ( 2008 ) :
State stigmatization is an exciting, complex and controversial phenomenon. It is exciting, as it represents an country in which there is small bing theory but a immense sum of existent universe activity ; complex, because it encompasses multiple subjects beyond the limited kingdom of conventional trade name scheme ; and controversial, in that it is a extremely politicised activity that generates passionately held and often conflicting point of views and sentiments ( p. 13 ) .
Branding techniques to topographic points is deriving more prominence over recent old ages ; more states are perpetrating resources to develop their metropolis, part or state trade name. Brand image of a small town or state is a mean to place them favorably in the oculus of the mark market in order to pull ; touristry, trade by hiking exports, and inward investing ( Dinnie, 2008, p. 17 ) . This will besides assist to pull endowment, higher instruction pupils and skilled workers. Harmonizing to Temporal ( as citied by Dinnie, 2008, p. 17 ) state stigmatization can besides increase currency stableness, aid reconstruct national credibleness and investor assurance, rearward international evaluations downgrades, increase international political influence, stimulate stronger international partnerships, and heighten state edifice. Kotler and Gertner ( 2002 ) suggest that states must pull off and command their stigmatization as states compete with other states and strive to invent beginnings of competitory advantage ( p. 253 ) .
2.2.1 Branding in relation to state stigmatization
King ( 1973 ) :
A merchandise is something that is made in a mill ; a trade name is something that is bought by a client. A merchandise can be copied by a rival ; a trade name is alone. A merchandise can be rapidly outdated ; a successful trade name is dateless.
Branding has been apparent since the really old history ; names were put on such goods such as bricks in order to place the shaper. However it was non until the 20th century that branding became cardinal to the rivals. Harmonizing to Aaker ( 1991 ) a trade name can be a name or a hallmark[ 2 ], or a mixture of both ( p. 7 ) . The trade name is at that place in order to distinguish the good or service from those of the rivals. In the instance of states it differentiates a peculiar topographic point or a state from other topographic points or states. For case Felzensztein ( a subscriber in Dinnie, 2008, pp. 59 – 61 ) provinces that Chile wants to place itself as unique in the continent of South America, particularly from their neighbour Argentina. Chile came out with a motto of “ All Ways Surprising ” .
“ State Branding is a alone, multi-dimensional blend of elements that provide the state with culturally grounded distinction and relevancy for all its mark audience, ”[ 3 ]( Dinnie, 2008, p. 15 ) . Successful sets offer consumers something of value that is different than the one offered by rivals. For case Cyprus offers a distinction in their trade name from that of Malta ; Cyprus Tourism Organisation promotes Cyprus with a motto of “ Love Cyprus – The year-around island ” . As a affair of fact they promote the Sun and sea for the summer, and the snow and skiing for the winter in Troodos Mountains. The trade name has the possible to go a tool for spliting the universe, and a medium of societal exchange. Branding offers reassurance and creates values to its clients ( Feldwick, 1991, p. 29 ) .
2.2.2 Brand Building Process
The trade name edifice procedure requires a long term committedness over a period of several old ages as the short term will merely supply a little final payment ( Dinnie, 2008, p. 19 ) . Brand directors need to be ethical and must be honest in merchandise stigmatization, nevertheless state branding requires farther honestness as it does non belong to trade name directors entirely but it belongs to anyone.
Murphy ( 1987 ) explains four stairss in developing a trade name.
Internal analysis to garner merchandise information, including features of the merchandise or service ; in this context the state must be identified
External analysis to roll up market information, including rivals, tendencies and demographics
Assemble hallmark information, including corporate demands and policies, market topographic point influences, legal demands and bing hallmarks
And, set a clear statement of trade name aims based for the long term aims for the company ; in this instance the state. ( p. 88 ) .
Even though the four points mentioned above trade chiefly with merchandises, these can be easy linked with services[ 4 ]and in this instance states or topographic points. Each measure is of import as to vie in the market. A trade name must be planned good and, if done correctly it will make a sense of trueness to clients. Loyalty ensures a positive indirect advertizement of the word of oral cavity[ 5 ]and may steer clients to come back once more. It is expensive for a company to pull new clients and less expensive to retain the bing 1s ( Aaker, 1991, p. 18 ) .
Trade names require deriving recognized wisdom ; media attains this. Harmonizing to New ( 1991 ) telecasting is likely the best medium that benefits from accepted wisdom ( pp. 85 – 117 ) . It is seen by different marks in different states. With the airtime and a peculiar programme chosen, the trade name can accomplish a peculiar position. For case De Marco ( 2009 ) highlighted the international selling of Malta in Parliament and showed that Malta had advertised in different Television Stationss in different states throughout 2009[ 6 ]. Other mediums can besides be used ; for case out-of-door activities such as postings. The cyberspace is another medium that can be utilised ; which by clip it is deriving more prominence in the cognition economic system ; MTA has been utilizing on-line stigmatization to publicize Malta peculiarly from the visitmalta.com portal. The imperativeness can besides be used and this by and large attains trueness as the reader reads it if he or she is interested. Figure 2 shows an advert of the Brand Malta run 2006 in a peculiar newspaper. Door to Door distribution was another medium used in the run to trade name the Maltese state ; each family was given a brochure about branding Malta. Another medium that can be besides used is the wireless, but harmonizing to New ( 1991 ) it is likely the least good to construct trade names.
bran Malta advert.jpg
Figure 2: Brand Malta imperativeness advert
2.2.3 Other Selling tools for touristry
“ Selling is about expecting demand, recognizing it, exciting it and eventually fulfilling it. It is an apprehension of what can be sold, to whom, when, where and in what measures, ” ( Holloway & A ; Plant, 1993, p. 4 ) . Marketing demands to be efficient ; every bit much as it is positive it can be negative. States must understand that selling is a dynamic construct ; people ‘s demands and wants alteration overtime ( Holloway & A ; Plant, 1993, p. 14 ) . Planing is needed to run into the short and long term aims. Brand directors can choose for different selling programs, but the one adopted must be dependent upon an analysis of the current market.
Harmonizing to Holloway and Plant ( 1993 ) , after the market is evaluated ; strategically there are three ways to travel. The first is low monetary value leading if the merchandise ( in this instance the state ) is large and powerful plenty to undersell challengers. Since Egypt and Tunisia are really large states, they compete for touristry with lower monetary values and still do considerable net incomes. The 2nd is merchandise distinction if the monetary value can non be lower. This system is used by Malta ; the authorities has insisted in the Pre Budget Documents 2006 and 2007 that Malta should vie in quality instead than cheap monetary values since Malta can non afford to lower monetary values. This was supported in the Brand Malta run. Finally, the 3rd option entails market focal point by providing for peculiar sections ( pp. 20 – 22 ) .
It is undependable to utilize the selling tool of prediction in the touristry industry. However it is still used, but at some points unanticipated events can harm the prognosis. For case in May 2004 the Ministry for touristry and civilization forecasted an addition of between 100,000 and 150,000 tourers by 2006/2007 ( The Independent, May 2004 ) . This prognosis was non reached due to holds in the proposed runs such as the merchandise Malta. Other illustrations of unanticipated events that struck the universe harmonizing to the World Travel and Tourism Council ( WTTC ) ( 2009 ) are in the period of 2001 and 2003 when there was 9/11 attach and the SARS eruption. The United Nations World Tourism Organisation ( UNWTO ) World Tourism Barometer ( 2009 ) identified a crisp bead in touristry in 2009 due to the impact of the planetary economic recession and, in some parts by concerns about the eruption of grippe A ( H1N1 ) virus ( p. 4 ) . The Economic Policy Division of Malta ( 2009 ) states that the international economic and fiscal crisis is holding a profound impact on the planetary touristry industry ; as a consequence it is negatively encroaching the Maltese touristry activity as it suffered important downswings ( p. 3 ) .
Market cleavage is another of import tool in selling. It is really difficult to make everyone in the universe. A mark section will cut down costs by concentrating merely on the best section ( Kotler & A ; Armstrong, 2008, p. 446 ) . Country trade name directors must gain that different topographic points pull different tourers. The touristry market can be segmented by the attractive forces tourers seek, such as natural beauty, Sun, events/sports or culture/history. The market can besides be segmented by countries, parts or locations by season. However this is largely used in bigger states as they offer a wider pick of options ( Kotler & A ; Gertner, 2002, p. 255 ) For case Italy can advance Sun and sea in summer in the coastal parts, and in winter it can advance skiing in the North. Kotler and Gertner ( 2002 ) besides province that “ consumers have literally 1000s of finish picks and they will be drawn to finishs that they perceive to offer the best value either because they offer the most benefits or because they are cheap or more accessible, ” ( p. 254 ) Therefore touristry requires image devising and stigmatization, grounded in the topographic point ‘s world.
2.3.0 Key issues in state stigmatization
“ Can states be treated as trade names? Are strong and magnetic state trade names likely to vie more efficaciously on the planetary phase? Would a strong state trade name help a state achieve better consequences in touristry, foreign investing or international political relations? ” ( Kotler & A ; Gertner, 2004, as cited by Dinnie & A ; Fola, 2009, p. 3 ) . There are many critics of state stigmatization. Policymakers need to be a small sceptic towards state branding as non to allow the term run in front without the necessary taught.
Dinnie ( 2008 ) states that a powerful and optimistic state trade name can supply decisive competitory advantage in today ‘s globalised economic system. It is indispensable for states to recognize how they are seen by other populaces around the Earth ; how their accomplishments and their failures, their assets and their liabilities, their people and their merchandises are reflected in their trade name images.[ 7 ]
In an progressively globalised economic system, the challenge of separating the merchandises or services from those of the rivals is significantly of import for states viing for both domestic and foreign consumers. In the touristry sector, most Mediterranean finishs…[ 8 ]do about indistinguishable claims sing the beauty of their scenery, the pureness of their beaches and the cordial reception of the nature of locals. Thus it is critical that states find or create a alone national individuality[ 9 ]in order to distinguish from their rivals. A trade name needs to make consciousness to be successful. This can be done, by the originality in the trade name itself, by affecting an sole motto or jangle, an open symbol and, good promotion by advertizements and publicities ( Aaker, 1991, p. 7 )[ 10 ]11. In add-on to this, Dinnie ( 2008 ) includes that it is of import to guarantee that an appropriate tone is used in advertizement ; as if the incorrect tone is used, people may go anomic or even offended. As happened in the instance of the Brand Malta run ; some people were offended by the term used “ YOU ARE BRAND MALTA ” . This can besides be seen in Figure 2. ( CITE from interview ) .
Figure 3: Malta ‘s unique logo
State stigmatization is accordingly going an country of turning importance for politicians, and interested forces or professionals likewise. However this construct is full of challenges for the policymaker. Dinnie and Fola ( 2009 ) depict four challenges for a state ( p. 4 ) . First, states are like trade names and do non run in a vacuity. States are by and large portion of other international administrations with several conflicting or complementary dockets. For case Malta is portion of the European Union and the United Nations ; therefore these shape the state into a peculiar image. Second, unstable authoritiess that change after an election may frequently ensue into a alteration in the public and political docket of a state. This will hold an impact if there is a long term politicised activity such as state branding scheme. Third, the legitimacy of those involved in the run demand to be justified by state ‘s citizens. Political leaders need to hold a consensus that is embraced by all cardinal stakeholders. It needs to be politically and socially acceptable to activists.. For case in the trade name Malta run, Mr Zahra… … Finally, there is the challenge that people do non understand clearly what is meant by state stigmatization. This occurred in Malta as many people did non understand the term Brand. Cite an interview or intelligence paper. The British authorities specializer adviser in the field of state stigmatization, Anholt ( 2007 ) states that it is non uneven for policymakers to suggest replacement footings, such as ‘reputation direction ‘ , ‘competitive individuality ‘ or ‘public diplomatic negotiations ‘ due to the misconceptions of the word trade name.
The broad nature of state branding demands to affect many parties in the preparation and the execution of the scheme. All relevant stakeholders, irrespective if they are in the Resistance or in bad footings with the present authorities, need to be involved in the run development. De Chernatony ( as cited by Dinnie, 2008, p. 187 ) identifies representatives from the ; authorities, resistance, commercialism, non for net income administrations, non authorities administrations, touristry and the media as the cardinal stakeholders to be involved in the state branding run. Inclusiveness[ 12 ]is critical in states ; this will assist cut down the job that, “ Many states may happen their state branding attempts stymied by political corruptness, power battles or a deficiency of strategic vision on the portion of the state ‘s opinion elites, ” ( Dinnie, 2008, p. 190 ) .
2.3.1 Stakeholders ‘ engagement
Professor of trade name selling Leslie de Chernatony ( as a part in Dinnie, 2008 ) states that the explicit values and experiences of the state trade name should imply the corporate engagement of the cardinal stakeholders[ 13 ]( p. 16 ) . They might include representatives or advisers from the authorities bureaus and entities, the private sector, the NGOs peculiarly related to touristry, the media and the general populace. However within the context of state branding one complication could be that every citizen or administration can be considered as a stakeholder. Due to this trouble Dinnie ( 2008 ) developed the to the full inclusive stakeholder ( FIST ) attack as shown in figure 4. The FIST attack provides a construction of the scope of possible stakeholders in the state trade name. The model offers a foundation for analyzing the multiplicity of stakeholders that will necessitate to be consulted in the development of the state trade name scheme. As can be seen from the FIST diagram merely the authorities has the authorization and the legitimacy that can realistically draw a bead on to synchronize the state trade name activities encircling the full scope of stakeholders.
Figure 4: Dinnie ‘s FIST ( to the full inclusive stakeholder ) attack
The organizing organic structure demands to be set up by authorities ( in the instance of Malta the MTA ) ; nevertheless it is of import that the organic structure possess a grade of political independency, so that in the long term if the Ministers change the scheme remain stable[ 14 ]. The coordinators should place the most common shared subjects and visions resulted from the interested forces. Those designations should be given back to the participants in order for them to reflect and in order to see whether they are in line with their sentiments.
In order to maximize the chances of a successful scheme preparation and execution, and to accomplish economic ends, there need to be a strong degree of public and private sector coaction ( Dinnie & A ; Fola, 2008, p. 5 ) . Meetings should be held on a regular basis between stakeholders to interchange information and to reenforce the aims, as they require support from each other to accomplish their mark. Groups need to work together to construct a more consistent state trade name. This coaction will take to awareness of the state ‘s individuality and a new image will be formed[ 15 ]. Harmonizing to Holloway and Plant ( 1993 ) consciousness of the function played should be created and delivered by assorted communicating media such as public dealingss events, conferences, seminars, workshops, word of oral cavity, Television, wireless, booklets, merchandise sheets, catalogues, newssheets and web sites[ 16 ]( pp. 141 – 146 ) .
In the instance of the stigmatization Malta run the cardinal stakeholders involved were curates, private sector mhra etc… . they besides used conferences, workshops… . elabortate
2.3.2 Government lobbying
The authorities is the chief policymaker ; nevertheless policies are formed through a assortment of constructions and channels, including persons ‘ establishments and the media. In fact, many groups are formed to act upon the authorities policies ( Hall & A ; Jenkins, 1995, pp. 47-64 ) such as the Malta Hotels and Restaurants Association ( MHRA ) in Malta. These groups can be ‘Pressure Groups ‘ , ‘Special Interest Groups ‘ , ‘Lobby Groups ‘ or ‘Organised Interests ‘ and their chief purpose is to act upon public policy in economic, societal and cultural features[ 17 ]18. Hall and Jenkins ( 1995 ) quotes that, “ Interests represent the ends that histrions seek to accomplish in the policy devising procedure. Because there are different sets of involvements working to act upon policy preparation and execution, struggle and competition may happen. ” Interest groups form in order to go more powerful than remaining as persons. Hall and Jenkins ( 1995 ) add that these groups have been turning and became an built-in constituent of the touristry policy doing procedure ( p. 48 ) .
Miller ( 1987 ) quotes that, “ Timess have changed and Government has become more complex, more permeant, and harder to disregard, ” ( p. Xiii ) . He adds that its influence has increased ; and it affects the stakeholders ‘ involvements. This led to the desire to understand and work with authorities ; the function of lobbying. For any concern this can be seen a set-piece conflict, that one needs to partake in order to safeguard its rational ego involvement. The private sector has the right to be informed, and it is the authorities ‘s responsibility to pass on the policy planning that may impact the private stakeholders ‘ involvement ( Miller, 1987, p. 126 ) . For case the authorities informed and included the private sector in audiences during the trade name Malta run procedure.
Citizens in covering with authorities demand to ; Know, Inform, Negotiate, and Lobby. Making contact with authorities does non needfully intend an purpose of policy alteration ; nevertheless it adds force per unit area, and influences the determination shapers. If lobbying is done right the consequences will by and large give good results for both sides. Miller ( 1897 ) considers buttonholing as most appropriate where an issue involves strong political or public involvement considerations ( p. 126 ) .
When lobbying is present pluralism[ 19 ]prevails through policy devising. Policies will be unfastened for influence by a broad diverse scope of involvement groups. As a consequence, political determinations will be done through procedures of bargaining, dialogues and via medias between the assorted involvements involved. Harmonizing to Hall and Jenkins ( 1995 ) , public engagement is indispensable in touristry planning and policy devising ; nevertheless they stress that the province is non a simple contemplation of the involvements of the society and certain involvements will exercise more power than others. The province has its ain involvements and values[ 20 ]to prosecute ( p. 39 ) .
Valuess lie at the bosom of public policy, and for this ground, of touristry policy. Harmonizing to Hall and Jenkins ( 1995 ) “ … this procedure involves the values of persons, groups and administrations in the battle of power through human interaction relation to the determination, ” ( p. 33 ) . Simmons et Al ( as cited by Hall & A ; Jenkins, 1995, p. 33 ) provinces that “ it is the value pick ; implicit or explicit, which orders the precedences of authorities and determines the committedness of resources within the public legal power. ” For case Vladimir Ledebenko ( in his part in Dinne, 2008, pp. 107 – 111 ) provinces that after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia changed it values and evolved from communism to democracy. Their values towards touristry became bigger and they are now working on self designation and the constitution of their image in the universe sphere.
2.3.3 The Maltese context
The Local Councils ‘ Association ( 2010 ) believes that:
Malta is non immune to the universe broad tendency of buttonholing. Governments have limited resources and hence many sectors endeavour to take a piece of the national bar through assorted agencies. The words duologue and audience have become synonymous with Maltese political relations. The word lobbying is kept for the confidant parties were those that attend seem to the chance to drop a word in the ears of those in power ( parity. 1 – 2 ) .