Tourist motives are the factors to do people wishing to travel travel. They want to hold personal fulfillment ( Coltman, 1989 ) . Crompton ( cited in Van Harssel, 1994 ) discovered that most respondents besides thought that travel is like a remainder and relaxation from modus operandi. However, it did non stand for altering their manner of lives, people merely go on to make the similar things but in a distinguishable milieus and physical context.
He besides indicated that travel can supply for self-exploration, exhilaration or societal interaction. They are the grounds why people travel around the universe. Tourists would non larn all the things by their modus operandis or from telecasting and books. It is better for them to acquire experiences by themselves, because of unedited by anyone else. Afterwards travel can do a pronounced difference with modus operandis, and it will supply exciting, uncommon or unusual things to tourist.
Furthermore, the hi-tech universe increases societal lives. For illustration, people will travel to the films, shopping promenades or concerts with friends and co-workers. Different gender, age, societal category, retirement, unemployment, societal relationships, characters and socialisation can impact the decision-making of touristry ( Argyle, 1996 ) . Wahab ( 1975 cited in Burns, 1999 ) established several travel intents, they include concern touristry, wellness touristry, cultural touristry, athletics touristry and recreational touristry.
It can be easy to understand that what people by and large travel for. The major grounds of travel are freedom and amusement which can be defined as pleasance travel ( Argyle, 1996 ) . Tourists expect and believe that traveling on a holiday can partially or to the full different demands and wants ( Mill and Morrison, 2002 ) . Ryan ( 1991 cited in Burns, 1999 ) stated some types of motive and they are determiners of people who go going. Tourist motives include flight, relaxation, beef uping household togetherness, wish and self-fulfilment, prestigiousness, shopping, societal interaction and sexual chance. In add-on, tourers are besides motivated to go by other factors. For blink of an eye, telecasting can pull people to go in new finishs and see different civilizations ( Van Harssel, 1994 ) . Tourists hope to see assorted civilizations and run into new people over the universe because of the wonder.
It is the primary motive of all visitants ( Hudman and Hawkins, 1989 ) . Recognition cards are acquiring common among the universe, so it is convenient for tourers to go around without hard currency or merely with a small hard currency. Basically, they tend to pay for the adjustment and diversion by recognition cards. Additionally, knowing can increase and excite people to travel on a holidaies, because instruction excite the wonder of people.
They hope to widen and enrich cognition every bit good ( Van Harssel, 1994 ) .The most celebrated theory to depict motive is Maslow ‘s demands hierarchy. Maslow used hierarchy to exemplify human demands as stimulators.
There are 5 flat hierarchy, including self-actualization, regard, belonging, security and physiological demands. Subsequently, he added cognitive and aesthetic demands. However, it is non really clear to demo that how these two demands fit into the former hierarchy. Human will non be motivated if the lowest demands, which is physiological demands, are satisfied. Following, they will be motivated by following demands, the security needs. Different demands are satisfied such and such ( Ross, 1994 ) .
However, Page, 2003 argued that Maslow hierarchy theoretical account is non immaculate, because people do non fulfill their demands hierarchically. Besides, some demands likely emerge at the same clip. However, the hierarchy theoretical account truly high spots single development demands. It besides describes that human exert themselves for personal growing. In order to explicate the motives further ( Nickerson, 1996 ) , many bookmans have developed Maslow ‘s work since 1950 ‘s.
Therefore, the demands of people to travel traveling can be considered from push and pull factors as good ( Lundberg, 1990 ) . Epperson ( 1983, cited in Lundberg, 1990 ) indicated that push factors are much more about internal, the personal desires. They motivate people to seek and travel on a holiday ( Page 2003 ) . They are intended to fulfill different psychological demands ( Dann, 1977 cited in Mill and Morrison, 2002 ) . Epperson listed six push motivations, such as, flight, self-discovery, relaxation, prestigiousness, challenge and escapade. The push factors of Mainland Chinese tourers are eruditeness, celebrity, and holding good personal relationship. Therefore, they travel in Hong Kong because of friendly, modern and convenient topographic point for shopping and holiday ( Liu et al, 2008 ) . In contrast, pull factors are external elements to the people.
They act like stimulators pulling people to go, such as, advertizement of resorts ( Page 2003 ) . It is about the advantages of the certain finishs. They are stupefying positions, historical topographic points, cultural and clean events ( Liu et al, 2008 ) . Participating or watching athleticss besides motivated people to go ( Hudman and Hawkins, 1989 ) . Accessibility, hi-tech feeling and ingestion are the of import pull factors of Mainland Chinese. For these grounds Hong Kong is really successful in manner retail, so it attracts plentifulness of Mainland Chinese tourers ( Liu et al, 2008 ) .
Finding out the importance of push and pull factors, it needs the five chief market sections. They are solitary tourers, households, twosomes, friends, and circuit groups. For illustration, flight component is reciprocally related to lone tourers and twosomes, these tourers less prefer togetherness. By contrast, Prestige is really of import for people who going with friends, households and circuit groups ( Jamrozy, 1992 cited in Mill and Morrison, 2002 ) .Normally, some finishs have been successful in touristry industry, because they understand the tourer motive really good. They know how to pull tourer sing their topographic points ( Page, 2003 ) . Surely, overarching tourers are in the universe ( Burns, 1999 ) .
Stanley Plog announced a celebrated theoretical account of tourer type. It is for classify people into psychographic and allocentrics by visitant characteristic. Psychometrics tourers ‘ travel intent is relaxation, so they prefer to make the general activities in familiar finishs. The journey is prearranged. Besides, they do non desire any foreign environment or atmosphere. On the other manus, allocentrics people are extroverted, self-assured and willing to run into new people. They are besides funny about new experiences, so they by and large travel in undeveloped finishs. The agenda is expected to set up by themselves instead than travel bureaus.
Therefore, it will be more flexible and unrestrained ( Nikerson, 1996 ) . However, there are some people who do non want to travel traveling, because they think that it is safer or more comfy to remain in their hometowns. However, if people like going, the motives can be divided into two determiners, they are related to finish and non-related to finish.
Travel for concern, instruction, wellness, faith and sing friends and relations provide a few or no picks of traveling other finishs for alternatively ( Coltman, 1989 ) . Many tourers from Taiwan, the United States and South and Southeast Asia travel in Hong Kong for concern. It can demo that Hong Kong is an apparent and of import concern hub ( Kwong, 1997 ) . Peoples travel abroad because of faith as good, such as pilgrim’s journeies, traveling to historical topographic points, spiritual bases or spiritual activities. The most of import motive of going among this sort of tourers is sing the bases.
For illustration, Jews go to Israel. Additionally, sing historical topographic points and go toing spiritual musical and play are propagating the certain religion. These activities can do the tourers adhering to a religion ( Hudman and Hawkins, 1989 ) . One of a good illustration is people going for sing friends and relations. It is frequently more of import than sing finishs ( Coltman, 1989 ) . In add-on, tourers visit their hometown is one of the large incentive ( Hudman and Hawkins, 1989 ) .
Travel is related to finishs, the motivations can be full of wonder about other civilization, explosions, local people and political relations ( Coltman, 1989 ) . Hall and Page, 2002 stated that all touristry research workers besides have a consistent inquiry, why tourers travel. It is a really of import to cognize because everyone besides has their ain ground. Most people can choose parts they like to go to.
For hosts, understanding travel motives can aim possible tourers, function them and fulfill their demands and wants ( Mill and Morrison, 2002 ) . There are assorted touristry demands around the universe. Some states have ever been a popular travel finish, and others are still in development. Every states and parts besides have their ain personal appeal to pull tourers to go at that place ( Swarbrooke & A ; Horner, 2004 ) . People likely have many grounds to go in a finish, They even prefer to take a vacation type ( Burns, 1999 ) . It is about motive which is indispensable portion of consumer behavior in touristry industry, because motive is strong related to psychological wants and demands ( Page and Connell, 2006 ) . It is really utile to utilize motives and behavior to sort tourers ( Nickerson, 1996 ) .
Tourists will take a finish because of the friendly local people or loosen uping environment. The topographic point is ever wanted to see, or some friends suggest the topographic point extremely, or the conditions is great all the clip and the scenery is attractive. Other ordinary factors will be concerned before people plan to travel on a trip, such as, diversion, degree of involvement in history and civilization of the topographic point, shopping topographic points, beautiful landscape, hygiene of the finish, ideal conditions and cost ( Lundberg, 1990 and Holloway, 2002 ) . For case, the travel intent of the visitants from Europe, the Middle East and Africa is diversion. The shopping installations and particular characteristics pull them to go in Hon g Kong ( Kwong, 1997 ) .
Actually, motive is besides approximately different behavior of everyone ( Argyle, 1996 ) . The people, who like to go around, are besides divided into two classs. Some of them prefer holding rather journey ( Lundberg, 1990 ) . Those people want to acquire off from the workplace since they ever have a nerve-racking life style. They prefer to travel to a new topographic point for loosen uping and burying all force per unit areas ( Holloway, 2002 ) . On the contrary, others wish to seek escapade ( Lundberg, 1990 ) , but it does non intend standing same gait of workday life. This sort of tourers ‘ motive can be defined as “ acquiring off from ” alternatively of “ traveling towards ” person and something.
Traveling off mundane environment is more of import than the involvement of sing new people and parts. ( Krippendorf, 2002 ) . It is besides of import to look at surface factors for understanding the travel grounds of tourers ( Nickerson, 1996 ) .
McIntosh and Goeldner ( 1990, cited in Nickerson, 1996 ) stated that there were 4 sorts of incentives for basic travel. They included position and prestigiousness, physical, interpersonal and cultural incentives. First, position and prestigiousness incentives are about the demand for celebrity. Besides, people think that travel can procure esteem and acknowledgment among their equals and friends.
Second, physical incentives concern with wellness. Tourists may take part in athleticss event and take some diversion, and these actions are the incentives of maintaining one ‘s wellness. Geting intervention, medical attention and go toing weight loss cantonment are related to remedial wellness incentives. Following, people want to do new friends, leave or visit friends and household, they are besides defined as interpersonal incentives. Last, cultural incentives describe tourers have ardent wonder and want to see other civilizations and life style ( Nickerson, 1996 ) .
Facilitators are besides really of import for tourers, such as, disposable income, low local currency rate, handily accessible topographic points, friendly locals and easy entry demand. They all can excite tourers to see certain finishs ( Holloway, 2002 ) . However, some people are non able to take their favorite travel finish due to the limited money and clip ( Argyle, 1996 ) . They normally compare with different finishs which is the most sensible monetary value to go. Then, they choose the most appealing topographic points among those finishs. ( Coltman, 1989 ) .
It is besides of import to understand the procedure about what tourers consume for travel experiences which is included costs of clip and money ( Page, 2003 ) . Consumer behavior is the procedure of the people to do determinations when confronting assorted merchandises. They concern about selecting, purchasing, utilizing and gauging the merchandises which can be unseeable and seeable ( Reisinger, 2009 ) . The chief point to understand motive is more about what merchandises tourists buy. Customers buy the merchandises and services which based on the capacity to fulfill their demands and wants ( Page and Connell, 2006 ) . Many writers besides connect touristry with ingestion together ( Greenwood, 1989 ; Burns and Holden, 1995 and Ritzer, 1998 cited in Burns, 1999 ) .
MacCannell ( 1976 cited in Burns, 1999 ) indicated that spend non merely on diversion and touchable goods, but besides on the local civilizations that the states they travel to.There are assorted sorts of tourers in the universe. They can be categorised by demographic, societal, economic, cultural, geographic, psychographic and behavioral. Every sort of tourer besides has assorted demands, behavior and front-runners ( Reisinger, 2009 ) . It is normally defined as nightlong and same twenty-four hours visitants, such as sightseers.
Obviously, sightseers will non seek any adjustment, but they still need to utilize other transit and substructure ( Burns, 1999 ) . Two precisely the same people can non be found. Additionally, different outlook and point of views besides can impact decision-making of travel finishs ( Page, 2003 ) . Mill and Morrison, 2002 indicated that if kids can hold chance in holiday determination devising procedure, it can foster the possibility of the kids who are satisfied the vacation pick. Intrinsic and extrinsic motive can calculate tourist motivations out ( Pearce, 1993 cited in Page, 2003 ) . Intrinsic motive is about single demands to promote themselves traveling travel.
For illustration, tourers travel for self-improvement or self-fulfillment. It can do them to hold felicity, fulfillment and ego-enhancement. On the other manus, extrinsic motive is about environing factors which affect tourer ‘s attitudes, perceptual experiences and penchants. For illustration, the touristry in the former Soviet Union, people sent laborers traveling on a holiday. Then, they would be refreshed and put in more attempts to work ( Page, 2003 ) . Erik Cohen announced a really celebrated touristry typology.
He indicated that each sort of tourers interact with different finishs. It besides can depict tourers ‘ behaviors and extent motives. He separated into four types of tourers, such as, organised mass tourer, single mass tourer, adventurer and vagrant. Organised and single mass tourers keep remaining in the ‘environmental bubble ‘ , because people avoid have any unhappy personal businesss. Therefore, they are less in touch with locals. They will set up their trips every bit before as possible. In contrast, adventurer and vagrant prefer to understand profoundly local civilization and interact with locals.
They will non stay in the ‘environmental bubble ‘ ( Burns, 1999 ) .Tourism is the lone manner that it can allow people to acquire off from day-to-day everyday temporarily and pass some vacations in one or more travel finishs. A journey can be changed and planned harmonizing to one ‘s penchant ( Leiper, 1990 cited in Page, 2003 ) .
Travel for shopping
Why do people travel shopping? Mowen, 1995 stated that shopping motive is from wish, drive or urge.
Peoples will travel and shop when they are in demand of something. In add-on, there are a batch of shopping motives during trips, such as low currency rate and deal monetary values. Tourists besides buy gifts as keepsakes of travel finishs or for calming the relationship with people ( Tasci et al, 2010 ) . However, some people like shopping because they enjoy the buying procedure, instead than the merchandises ( Vipul and Mahendra 2009 ) .
They likely merely desire to get away from workday and experience other civilizations ( Tasci et al, 2010 ) .Presents, shopping becomes an of import portion in the touristry industry. It is even a chief portion of a journey ( Holloway, 2002 ) . Shoping in Hong Kong is the chief activity for tourers ( Kwong, 1997 ) . For illustration, tourers ‘ shopping disbursement makes a powerful impact on Hong Kong local economic system. It is still the chief disbursement among all disbursement classs until 2009. The entire outgo of shopping on nightlong and same-day in-town visitants were HK $ 82.12 billion, it was around US $ 10.
5 ( Census and Statistics Department, 2010 ) . Furthermore, Mainland Chinese tourists become the highest consumers within all markets in Hong Kong. They spend a good trade of their money on shopping ( Wong et al, 2002 ) . When certain of seasons, hebdomads or months are bargain gross revenues in some states, plentifulness of visitants will go to those topographic points ( Holloway, 2002 ) . For illustration, the beginning of January and July normally are the deal gross revenues period of most stores in Japan ( Japan National Tourism Organization, 2011 ) .
In add-on, advanced and well-designed shopping promenades and section shops are going an attractive force of leisure activity. These comfy environments can pull monolithic tourers to pass in at that place and bask the installations by themselves ( Holloway, 2002 ) .
Travel for concern
Business Tourism is about people who go going for their work as the chief intent.
Business travel is one of a most ancient touristry types. The celebrated one is “ silk route ” which was the chief linking path of merchandising silk from Asia to Europe. Today, business communities have to go around the universe often due to many intents. They have to show at the meeting, conferences, preparation classs, exhibitions and trade shows. The trip is important for them because it concerns about the companies whether can be able to last in the market place ( Swarbrooke and Horner, 2004 ) . The motive of the concern touristry is closely related to the companies.
For this ground, they normally do non care about the cost of the trip, such as, air tickets monetary values. They prefer the best concern trade to the negligible cost. Furthermore, concern tourers ever consider the most convenient and fastest manner to get the finishs, so the trustworthy and frequent transit is really of import for them. It is non merely flights, but besides boats and trains. Then, concern tourers can complete missions on clip ( Holloway, 2002 ) . Page and Connell, 2006 besides states that the employees will be reward for good public presentation if they win during the trip.
China concern travel spent USD $ 140.9 billion in 2010, it was increase 16.3 % in comparing with 2009. Harmonizing to the current development in China, the figure was merely what the state expected. More and more abroad companies besides want to negociate the concern with China, because Chinese market is acquiring a large influence in the universe. Therefore, concern travel is an of import activity ( Global Business Travel Association, 2011 ) .Holloway, 2002 indicated that concern tourers need to be after their journeys on the weekdays, because they hope to pass much clip with their households at the weekends.
It is just plenty since they are ever ready whenever for the trip, even at dark. They likely have a trip at short notice. The clip of remaining at place is acquiring less. In add-on, concern tourers have to confront a batch of unexpected events, such as, delayed flights or traffic jams. They may be lonely and disquieted. It can be rather nerve-racking for them ( Lundberg, 1990 ) . Therefore, some business communities like to take their spouse to the journey. They can do good usage of the excess clip to hold a short pleasance trip.
In some instances assistant is needed excessively if the trip is included leisure clip. Owing to go often, some concern tourers prefer peculiar air hoses and take advantages of the frequent circular programmes. Further, the trip cost is normally paid by the company. Therefore, they do non choose direct and the cheapest path for doing certain to be awarded as many stat mis as they can ( Holloway, 2002 ) .
Travel for sing friends and relations
Visiting friends and households besides has a history. This type of touristry tendency has been pandemic from 16th century ( Girouard, 1978 ) . There are plentifulness of people migrators around the universe. This lasting in-migration can develop a touristry tendency, sing friends and relations. It can supply a demand of touristry in those states ( Page and Connell, 2006 ) . It is a good illustration in Guangdong Province, plentifulness of this sort of tourers over at that place. Harmonizing to the history, Hong Kong was one time portion of Guangdong territory.
Therefore, most hereditary places of the occupants are Guangdong. Owing to this particular beginning, a batch of Guangdong occupants largely have relations and friends in Hong Kong presents ( Tsui, 2004 ) . Besides, there were above 10s of 1000s Hong Kong people migrated to abroad during 1980s to 1990s. The hot states were The United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. However, the relations and friends of the migrators were still in Hong Kong. Both of them had to be separated for a long clip and they would look frontward to seeing each other. Therefore, friends and relations would go in those states for sing the migrators. ( Buckley, 1997 ) .
In add-on, nowadays people go and join the nuptials party which is besides defined as sing friends and relations, it is non merely in an earlier phase. The transits are going good developed, people can go in other states easy ( Swarbrooke & A ; Horner, 2004 ) .
Travel for sing other civilizations
Every state besides has their ain local civilization. There are 12 cultural elements chiefly, they are handcrafts, linguistic communication, traditions, gastronomy, art and music, history, local work, architecture, faith educational system, frock and leisure activities. All of them can enable tourers to see more about the local civilization of the travel finishs ( Mathieson and Wall, 1982 ) . It is normally the chief ground of a visitant traveling in a state ( McKercher & A ; duCriss, 2003 ) .
Tourists can hold a good chance to deeply understand the local civilization through the. For illustration, they can travel to heritage attractive forces, seek the local nutrient and go to the local festival jubilation during the journey ( Swarbrooke & A ; Horner, 2004 ) . There is a Mid-Autumn Festival in Hong Kong yearly.
This festival represents togetherness and harmoniousness of each household and people eat moon-cakes with their households together ( Yip, 2008 ) . Even though it is besides a Chinese Festival, Hong Kong has new scopes and assortments of moon-cakes ( Tse, 2007 ) . On the other manus, some tourers prefer to see in a topographic point which has similar cultural background. Tourists can pass on with the hosts easy because the linguistic communication is somewhat different or no disagreement. ( Reisinger, 2009 ) . For illustration, Mainland Chinese often go going in Hong Kong. The cultural distance between this sort of visitants and the hosts is small or even there is non ( Law et al, 2008 ) .
This is a important portion in touristry industry. It profoundly concerns about the clients ‘ ingestion. Tourists will be willing to go in that topographic point and they will pass more if the exchange rate is low ( Tribe, 2005 ) . Peoples will take foreign states if the currency rate is optimum ( Greenwood, 2007 ) .
Exchange rate is large influence to the touristry industry since the entire cost of the trip. It is the chief factor of tourer behavior. Tourists will make up one’s mind the travel finishs, length of stay, the sum of disbursement, the frequence of travel clip and the travel manner because of the exchange rate. For illustration, people will remain in inn alternatively of hotel if the currency rate is high.
Some tourers will even alter to other travel finishs where are low currency rate ( Crouch, 1994 ) . It is a large impact of short draw tourers particularly, because this sort of tourers has sudden caprices to travel going. As usual, they compare monetary values in host states to their hometown ( Greenwood, 2007 ) .
Furthermore, tourers of group circuit besides will believe that the cost of the trip additions when they are surcharged by the travel bureau. When the currency rate is in an unfavorable state of affairs, most tourers will besides believe that all touristry merchandises are expensive. They will maintain harnessing on their disbursement ( Swarbrooke & A ; Horner, 2004 ) . However, it is comparatively weak influence on concern travelers because they prefer to strike deals instead than the cost of the travel manner. For illustration, Even though the air ticket and hotel cost are increase, they will still go on their journeys ( Crouch, 1994 ) . Greenwood, 2007 indicated that exchange rate besides affect less in long haul tourers. Normally, the tourers plan their journeys beforehand.
Therefore, they normally less concern the currency rate and go on to see selected travel finishs.
Governments contribute greatly to the touristry industry through fiscal support, they will originate a batch of new undertakings which are be aftering and assisting for the touristry. They need to pull off and rule the related constituent parts as all cost a really big sum to develop ( Holloway, 2002 ) . They act a chief function in touristry industry. They can be a large aid in touristry development ( Lundberg, 1990 ) . For illustration, Istanbul is developed to be a chief shopping finish in comparing with neighbouring states. The biggest and oldest shopping promenade in the universe is besides located in this metropolis.
The authorities will keep a 40 twenty-four hours long shopping festival from 18th March to 26th April this twelvemonth. They besides bring many benefits to the visitants. Tourists can bask revenue enhancement free shopping and acquire price reductions on assorted merchandises. Furthermore, a trade name new auto will be awarded as the large award everyday within the event ( BI-ME staff, 2011 ) . Promoting the touristry at abroad and place is necessary, because a good advertisement of the holiday topographic point can pull many tourers to go at that place ( Holloway, 2002 ) .
For case, the duty of Hong Kong Tourists Association is advancing touristry industry for dining the economic system in Hong Kong. It advertises Hong Kong touristry is a merger of the Orient and the Occident, or traditions and modernism. These subjects have been mentioned in a batch of brochures and tour ushers ( Cheung, 1999 ) . Choi et Al, 2008 stated that Hong Kong besides has other favorable conditions, such as, advantage in geographics, safety, convenient to go and populate and particular benefits to Mainland Chinese tourers. The states, which target touristry gross as their primary national income, ever have touristry development strategy. It is included what new manmade attractive forces should be built, and pulling more tourers come and spend in the state.
However, so they can ache the industry at the same clip. The national leading can bring forth broad influence in touristry. They will foment local to be favoritism or ardor in visitants ( Lundberg, 1990 ) .Harmonizing to the above literature, there are assorted travel motives which have reviewed.
Satisfying psychological demands is the chief ground. Shopping, concern travel and cultural travel are the general travel types of Mainland Chinese tourers sing Hong Kong. However, everyone besides has different behaviors and two same people do non be. Therefore, two research inquiries should be included: is it merely pull factors to do more and more Mainland Chinese tourers sing Hong Kong? Second, what profile of Mainland Chinese tourers going in Hong Kong chiefly?