Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean in South Asia, 65 610 square kg metres in country, divided into nine administrative states where population of about 21 million in 2009. The state measures about 400 kilometres from North to South and 250 kilometer from East to West.
The entire length of roadway in Sri Lanka is 112,603 kilometer in 2009. The figure of vehicles in Sri Lanka in 2009 is 2,245,108. By 1948, when Sri Lanka became independent, there were about 11,000 kilometers of roads, of which about 7,000 kilometers were paved. Sri Lanka has a route web of approximately 112,603km, consisting about 11,760 kilometers of national roads ; 15,743 kilometer of provincial roads ; 80,600 kilometer of local authorization roads ; and 4,500 kilometer of roads owned or controlled by irrigation, wildlife, and land development governments. These national main roads comprise roads that are categorized as Class A and B roads, the highest classs in Sri Lanka ‘s route hierarchy.
Provincial roads are categorized as Class C, D, and E roads. While the capacity of local and rural roads has been expanded since 1948, most of the bole roads day of the month back to pre-independence old ages and their capacity has become unequal owing in portion to neglected care. Road conditions are by and large hapless.Roadss are the spinal column of the conveyance sector in Sri Lanka. They are important for the motion of people and goods and play a critical function in incorporating the state, easing economic growing, and finally cut downing poorness. National roads are keeping over 70 per centum of the traffic in Sri Lanka. Roadss are really of import for the big bulk of Sri Lanka ‘s people who live in the small towns. They are frequently the lone manner for most rural people to make necessary services such as infirmaries, schools, markets, and Bankss, which are largely situated far from their small towns.
1.2 Problem Background
The installation of smooth traffic motion is an decoration every bit good as an plus to any metropolis. But capital metropolis of Sri Lanka is confronting a large job with traffic job. Traffic job has aggravated by the attending of all signifiers economic, commercial and administrative maps in the metropolis.The metropolis of Colombo attracts about 1.5 Million drifting population on a on the job twenty-four hours and with the add-on of the resident population in the metropolis. The entire population in the metropolis increases to more than 2 Million during the daylight. It is estimated that approximately 50 % of the transposing population arrives in the metropolis for employment or to link in commercial activities and or to go to educational establishments.
The remainder comes to the metropolis for assorted other intents.Commuting population are used assorted signifiers of transit to come in the metropolis. Both the figure of vehicles and the riders come ining the City are increasing twelvemonth by twelvemonth.
Traffic congestion is often increasing as more and more people buy vehicles. At the same clip the residential population and the ownership of vehicles within the metropolis bounds will besides see a singular growing. Vehicles are come ining to the City from 9 entry points on working yearss have been estimated to be about 275,000, and this is in add-on to the part to the traffic floor by the usage of vehicles of the occupants in the metropolis. The combination of these facets outcome is a greater attractive force of the metropolis for people from the remainder of the state therefore worsening the conveyance job in the metropolis of Colombo.
2. Reasons for traffic congestion
The figure of vehicles in the metropolis is non the lone factor that contributes to congestion. There are several other grounds for this traffic congestion.
2.1 The current traffic signal web
A signal operation system is indispensable to route efficiency. There are so many traffic circles and hamlets where no traffic signals are installed in every topographic point.
These topographic points are celebrated for traffic blocks since many automobilists and walkers do non follow the prevalent regulations. Pedestrians are crossed roads without regular intervals and utilizing manus signals. It seems that the current traffic signal web in Colombo is deficient to keep monolithic sums of traffic volume.
2.2 The current route system
Massive main roads, many Bridgess, and tunnels can non be found all over the state like South Korea. Most of the roads are little and narrow.The conditions and criterions of the roads are unequal to run into quickly turning cargo and rider traffic.More than 50 % of the national roads have hapless or really hapless surface status and many are earnestly congested. The range for widening roads on bing alliances is limited chiefly because of land acquisition issues.
2.3 Inadequate investing
Despite the significant additions in traffic volume at that place have been unequal investings for building of new main roads or broadening and bettering bing roads.
Over the past old ages the investing in the route sector has been chiefly determined on the rehabilitation of the bing route web.
2.4 Mixed traffic system
National main roads, which are by and large two-lane, has been unable to transport the current volume of assorted traffic ( walkers, motorcycles, coachs, three-wheelers, and motor vehicles ) . Increasing traffic volumes and a traffic mix consisting of motorised and non-motorized traffic have resulted in low travel velocities, terrible traffic congestions, and increased accident rates.
2.5 Street sellers
There are illegal buildings and street sellers are making their concerns in waysides. In most roads passage through waysides is obstructed by these street sellers.
Uncontrolled wayside development and concerns has reduced the capacity of the route web.
2.6 Illegal parking
Illegal parking significantly contributes to congestion and impedes the traffic flow. Cities suffer in Sri Lanka from unenforced drive and parking ordinances. Although Vehicles parking in waysides is illegal in the state most of automobilists are parking their vehicles in waysides ground for that is restriction of parking topographic points.
2.7 Sidewalks for walkers
In capital metropolis, most of roads have constructed without pavements for walkers. When walkers are walking side on the route the bing roads have translated to as narrow roads.
3. Datas analysis
In this portion has concerned about most relevant informations in connexion with traffic congestion. Although South Korea has provided more installations for their conveyance system they besides are possessed job with congestion.
In South Koreans has enjoyed with many main roads, Bridgess, tunnels, and express ways in connexion with their conveyance system. In sing about traffic congestion can be considered as population, no of vehicles, no of accident and no of individuals killed in accident are the most of import factors. In the undermentioned information has been attending about compare information with South Korea and Sri Lanka.
The following table no 1 and figure no1 has included information about population in thousand in two states.
Table no 1.Population in two states
Sri Lanka Population ( 1000 )18,71318,79718,92119,17319,46219,66819,88620,01020,15620,303South Korea population ( 1000 )47,00847,35747,62247,85948,03948,13848,29748,45648,60748,747Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lankawww.
Figure no 1.
Population in two states
Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lankawww.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10When sing about this information South Korea population is higher than Sri Lanka ground for that Sri Lanka is a little state than South Korea.
2 No of registered vehicles
Other most of import factor is no of registered vehicles in these two states. In table no 2 and 3 are provided entire no of vehicles in two states.
Table no 2. No of registered vehicle in South Korea
Registered Vehicle ( 1000 )
Increasing Rate ( % )
Table no 3. No of registered vehicle in Sri Lanka
Registered Vehicle ( 1000 )
( % )
5Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka
Figure no 2.Registered vehicles in South Korea
Figure no 3.Registered vehicles in Sri Lanka
Beginning: Central Bank of Sri LankaIn comparing with 2001 the no of vehicles has increased in 30 % twelvemonth 2008 in South Korea.
There are 91 % important increase in Sri Lanka comparison with 2001 and 2008. Although degree of increased of entire no of vehicles in both states has decreased it is really important in 2004 in South Korea.
3.3 Traffic Accident in South Korea
In the undermentioned tabular arraies and figures have been discussed about traffic accident volume and how many people killed by route accident in both states.
Table no 4.Traffic Accident in South Korea
Year200020012002200320042005200620072008Traffic AccidentsVolume290,481260,579230,953240,832220,755214,171213,745211,662251,822PersonKilled10,2368,0977,0907,2126,5636,3766,3276,1665,870Beginning: www.iatss.or.
Table no 5.Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka
Year200020012002200320042005200620072008Traffic Accidents Volume54,25052,09255,03159,49453,45842,53735,76333,99331,872Person Killed199219522029193321162236223824022328Beginning: Central Bank of Sri Lanka
Figure no 4. Traffic Accident in South Korea
Figure no 5.
Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka
Beginning: Central Bank of Sri LankaAlthough traffic accident volume has been decreased up to 2007 there is a considerable increase in 2008 in South Korea. In comparing with 2007, the traffic volume has been increased in 19 % in the twelvemonth 2008. In sing about Sri Lanka information the highest accident volume has been reported in twelvemonth 2003.The sum is 59,494 accidents. After 2003, there are noteworthy decreased in the traffic volume of Sri Lanka.When concerned about no of killed individual in accident there are large different with two state.
Although in South Korea the no of killed individual in accident has been decreased twelvemonth by twelvemonth the Sri Lanka state of affairs is different. There has been reported a important increase about no of individual killed in accident.
4. Solutions for jobs
1 Traffic signal web
To react traffic congestion in capital metropolis must be established new traffic signals in every traffic circle, cross route and necessary topographic points. It will be appreciable affected to cut down traffic congestion. The traffic signal web is established in 100 % in the developed states and many of other states.
4.2 Improve route substructure.
It is necessary to build a modern route web, and upgrade bing roads to run into the state ‘s economic and societal development demands. In add-on to the demand for bettering and rehabilitating deteriorated roads, there is an pressing demand to ship on a plan for the building of new intercity main roads. In sing about route substructure should concern about pavements and illegal buildings.
It will be helped to ease more route infinite to the automobilist on the route.
4.3 Private sector investing
The Government has limited capacity to finance public investings. Advanced funding schemes particularly private sector investing will be needed to mobilise sufficient support for such main roads. Using these financess can be improved route care and building and do route development sustainable. The authorities should advance private sector engagement in route substructure betterment.
4.4 Transport Planning and Coordination.
Transport sector duties in Sri Lanka have been widen over a battalion of ministries and bureaus, taking to a extremely disconnected construction of decision-making. At present there are nine ministries with a direct duty for conveyance substructure. When taking determinations sing route substructure it have been affected for all these governments.
In the past decennaries, many determinations have non match and there are besides large statement about these determinations.The Sri Lankan authorities should take necessary stairss to set up one establishment from garnering these all relevant establishments to supply a better conveyance services.
5. Policy execution
5.1 A national policy sing traffic signal
The traffic signals will assist to better traffic flow on roads. These stairss would guarantee less traffic congestion and traffic accidents compare with old state of affairs.
5.2 Private investing
Harmonizing to current state of affairs in the state, authorities should believe a national policy sing private investing on the route substructure. Lack of finance state of affairs in the authorities, this measure will be helped to authorities to better the route substructure in the state.
5.3 Reduce responsible establishments
In present there are several establishments in sing route conveyance.
It would non be good to taking the determinations. In sing that, can be arrange these all establishments under one policy sing the route transit.
The efficiency of Sri Lanka ‘s conveyance sector has blocked by a assortment of restraints. Sri Lanka depends on foreign trade and it can be increased by efficient conveyance web in the state. Globalization of trade has risen non merely from the liberalisation of trade, but besides from major progresss in communications, conveyance, and storage engineerings.
On clip bringing of merchandises and riders has become a consequence of good transit web. For travel of people and transit of factors of production, semi-finished goods, and manufactured merchandises will necessitate efficient conveyance services. After following effectual and efficient policies sing transit web can be achieved a better conveyance web in the state.