Positivism is a philosophical and epistemic theory that assumes that societal world is nonsubjective and can be described and analyzed by the research worker in an nonsubjective and impersonal, i.e. “ scientific ” manner. Although positivism influences to a big extent quantitative researches, qualitative researches can besides be distinguished into those that have positivist or post-positivist nature.
Positivism supports that nonsubjective cognition ( facts ) derives from direct experience or observation and it is the lone sort of cognition that is available to science. The theoretical entities are discarded.
Harmonizing to positivism, scientific discipline is separated from value judgement ( values ) . It is based chiefly on quantitative informations by utilizing rigorous regulations and procedures and it basically different from common logic. All scientific proposals are based on empirical informations ( facts ) and scientific premises are checked in relation to empirical informations ( facts ) . The intent of scientific discipline is to develop cosmopolitan causal Torahs. A causal relation means happening empirical regularities or changeless concurrences. Explanation or reading of a fact means that this fact can be correlated with a general jurisprudence. Finally, it is possible to reassign the instances and methods of physical scientific disciplines into societal scientific disciplines.
Phenomenology is scientifically comparative to the epistemic school of symbolic interaction and is characterized by the cardinal importance it gives to the function of human consciousness in the formation and reproduction of human and societal phenomena.
The phenomenological tradition maintains that the external and societal universe has significance and acquires intending merely through the consciousness formed for it. The outside universe therefore is perceived as a series of “ events ” linked to the conceptual procedures of consciousness, non as an nonsubjective world with the counsel of a “ right ” method. Therefore, societal world is determined and made aˆ‹aˆ‹by the action of societal topics on the base of “ intersubjectivity ” .
It can be suggested that intersubjectivity is a cardinal construct for the phenomenological apprehension of society and societal phenomena, since through it the place of the being of a common for all societal topics or nonsubjective societal world that may be object of scientific probe can be rejected beyond the significance attributed to it by the scrupless of societal topics.
Since the present survey is a quantitative one, its doctrine is positivism in the sense that it attempts to roll up quantitative informations and happen a relation between informations and bing theory.
Research Approach ( Inductive vs. Deductive )
A philosophical difference that seems to be between qualitative and quantitative research is the logic of account. This arises from the differentiation between tax write-off and initiation. More merely, the initiation describes a logical statement that moves from the general to the particular. The “ initiation ” is the statement for the general attitude based on specific observations or events ( Gibbs, 2005 ) . In the initiation of a immense figure of specific remarks or posters, a general or cosmopolitan jurisprudence is extracted. Induction clearly describes a really common type of human idea, the 1 that captures the signifier of the ideas of the bulk of the people. It is said that behind the smooth coexistence of state of affairss and biass with which the universe is perceived ( Gibbs, 2005 ) .
The research workers in subjects such as sociology, economic sciences etc. have ever taken the position that tax write-off is the agencies by which research should continue. Deduction has been identified with the quantitative method in these affairs, and the control of the premise resembles with the gilded standard signifier of empirical research.
Therefore, since the present research follows the quantitative method, tax write-off will be followed. The deductive attack will be used to look into if premises are the consequence of the relevant theories. In order to look into these premises it is necessary to garner informations and their statistical analysis will demo if theories will be eventually accepted or non.
a ) Exploratory Researches
The exploratory researches purpose at explicating a job to analyze or show premises, to prioritise and analyse revelatory state of affairss. Exploratory research have as a chief purpose find and invention, which is why their chief characteristic is flexibleness. Significant parts to the success of these researches are considered:
oˆ‚? experience and
oˆ‚? the engagement of experts.
Exploratory research is followed at the present survey since its purpose is to detect the relation of political instability to the attractive force of a tourer finish.
B ) Descriptive Researches
Descriptive Researches purpose at specifying and measuring the characteristics of a given state of affairs. For the success of these researches, the following are required:
oˆ‚? monitoring for prejudice.
oˆ‚? to be more organized and planned.
degree Celsius ) Experimental Researches
The experimental researches aim at commanding the rightness of premises. In other words, these researches test whether there is, between two variables, a
systematic relationship, e.g. it is checked that:
oˆ‚? one variable ever appears with another,
oˆ‚? alterations in one variable are accompanied by alterations in another.
Experimental researches are based on experiment: natural or unreal, through which the research worker controls the admissibility of an premise.
The quantitative method is applied when the end of research is to prove certain theoretical premises about the societal phenomenon under survey. A quantitative method is based on a standardised study questionnaire which enables the research worker to make a big portion of the population to command the theory. When the study consequences are based on a big figure of instances, the general perceptual experience is that the theoretical premises undergo more strict and valid control. The standardisation of informations collected, the ability to near a big portion of the population and the susceptibleness of informations in methods of statistical analysis make quantitative research as the most widespread signifier of empirical research in the survey of societal phenomena ( Kyriazis, 2002 ) . A research worker in order to make valid scientific consequences s/he should concentrate on two cardinal issues. First, the aggregation of a representative sample of the population under survey and secondly to develop a suited questionnaire for the study.
As it is non possible for the research worker to analyze each person in the population under survey, s/he is forced to choose a representative sample of this population. The representative sample is necessary in quantitative research to be able to make valid consequences. A representative sample allows the research worker to generalise his/her findings. If the sample is non properly chosen, so the research worker may show merely trends emerging from this sample.
The chief sampling strategies are presented below:
Simple random trying – it is the most popular method since every person in the population has the same possibility to be selected in the sample. It is normally done through a catalogues where the persons that will organize the sample will be chosen indiscriminately.
Handiness or Haphazard Sampling: the sample is selected from a part of the population, which is easy accessible. In other words, there are selected merely those population units that are easier to be taken. It is obvious that such a sample
may non be representative of the population from which it is derived. Indicatively, the undermentioned instances lead in samples of this sort:
a. For look intoing the oranges produced, some oranges from the box are selected from the topographic points of the bundle which the manus can make.
B. At a public sentiment canvass, volunteers/ replies to the questionnaire are sought.
The disadvantages of such samples, sing their usage for making decisions for the whole population, are obvious.
Judgemental or Purposive Sampling: In instances, where the population may be
composed by different types of units with different grades of handiness, the research worker makes a calculated subjective pick when doing what s/he considers
a representative sample. A research worker, Internet Explorer, selects from the heterogenous population a sample of typical units, ie units which are close to the, harmonizing to his/her opinion, of the mean value of population. The consequences of this signifier of trying
can be really good if the research worker ‘s intuition or judgement is perfect. It should, of class, be noted that several researches follow this sampling. The present research follows judgemental sampling.
Quota Sampling: This technique is the consequence of uniting research worker ‘s opinion and handiness of population units. For illustration, in trying with predefined per centums, the passers of a route may be asked in a effort to obtain a sample that is judged by the research worker that it is representative of different ages, gender, profession etc. This strategy, nevertheless, involves an component of handiness:
There are selected “ passers who are judged to run into more than the remainder the above criteria. “
While these methods may take to representative samples, which under suited conditions may give utile consequences they are unsuitable for developing a sampling theory. The ground is that they lack the component of entropy in the choice of the units. As a consequence, there can non be a step of comparing representativeness or adequateness or truth of the calculators that will be based on samples derived from the above figures. Consequently, it is necessary to present an component of entropy in the procedure of sample choice, the sample should be selected harmonizing to some chance mechanism. Such a intervention allows to look into the representativeness and measure the truth of the trying research and the resulting calculators.
Data Collection Methods
This subdivision lists and briefly discusses three of the most popular methods of stuff aggregation and their advantages and disadvantages. This manner it becomes evident how the selected method that facilitates more informations processing and hence, the execution of the research is selected. These three methods of stuff aggregation are:
Observation: it is the procedure where a phenomenon or behaviour are observed during a planned, organized, systematized by people qualified or trained for this function. It records events and demands confirmation ( Dimitropoulos, 1994: 89 ) .
The types of observation are: direct, participatory, and indirect or induced or experimental observation.
The interview: It is one of the most popular methods of roll uping stuff where the research worker submits the interviewee a series of inquiries that he is asked to react. What involvements the research worker is to detect what the answering thinks in relation to a peculiar topic, and to compare the sentiments and positions of interviewees. Then, the research worker is interested to compare and group the positions of respondents ( Zafiriou, 2003 ) .
Types of interview are: directed or structured, semi-directed interview and free.
The types of interviews are: directed or structured, semi-directed and free interview.
The questionnaire: It is a signifier that contains a series of structured inquiries which are presented in a specific order in which the respondent is asked to react in authorship ( Zafiriou, 2003 ) .
The chief advantages of questionnaires are:
i?¶ They are cheaper than the interviews.
i?¶ They can be sent to a big figure of people.
i?¶ It is easy to fabricate and utilize.
i?¶ The respondents can show themselves freely ( deficiency of direct contact )
i?¶ Standard ways to analyse the stuff.
i?¶ The research worker can non act upon the replies.
i?¶ It is a less clip devouring method.
The chief disadvantages of questionnaires are:
i?¶ The research worker can non clear up unfastened inquiries.
i?¶ It compels the respondent to reply in a certain manner.
Based on the advantages presented above, and due to the rawness of the research worker and the short clip required for the research, and since the present paper is a thesis the questionnaire was considered as the best manner of transporting out this research survey.
Then this chapter describes the process followed for the readying of the questionnaire.
The procedure followed in building the questionnaire is described below.
The questionnaire is the agencies of communicating ( interface ) among the research worker and the respondents, straight or indirectly, depending on the method of informations aggregation. The readying of the questionnaire, due to its belongingss, it is the most critical and delicate work, important to the success of a statistical study.
It is characteristically said that A? no statistical research can be better than the questionnaire used in this A? ( Paraskevopoulos, 1993 ) . This phrase emphasizes the fact that in a research even if an effectual sampling program is enforced effectual, it is non possible to pull right decisions if no comparable responses are taken from an inappropriate questionnaire with obscure inquiries.
Fixing the questionnaire
For the readying of a suited questionnaire, the undermentioned actions should hold been preceded:
Determination and specialisation of the end of the research.
Choice of informations aggregation methods.
Understanding the features of the respondents.
As mentioned above, the designation and specification of the end of the research is the construct to has to be defined foremost. The preparation of inquiries will be based on them ( Rondos & A ; Papanis, 2007 ) .
The choice of aggregation method is besides important for the design of an appropriate questionnaire. For illustration, if the questionnaire is to be completed by the respondent himself, without the intercession of a research worker, so accent should be given on the proficient unity of the questionnaire and elucidation, through written accounts to the questionnaire, of the parts that may be misunderstood. However, if the questionnaire is completed by the research worker during the interview, the questionnaire will be to the full understood and easy to utilize, as it could be explained, in instance of questions by the same research worker.
Finally, the features of the answering population should be taken into consideration when planing questionnaires, explicating inquiries and the usage of appropriate words.
For the creative activity of a questionnaire, the undermentioned features should be taken into consideration in order to hold a successful and proper research: ( Javeau, 2000 ) .
i?¶ Proper construction.
i?¶ Involve audit inquiries.
i?¶ Be every bit brief as possible.
i?¶ To hold flawlessness in presentation from a proficient point of view.
i?¶ To include basic instructions for finishing and conceptual accounts.
i?¶ To be able to hold codified and computing machine processing.
Completeness refers exactly to the demand of covering all facets of the searched feature.
Clarity refers non merely to the content of information but besides to the individual who should give the replies.
Coherence refers to the demand of organic connexion among the single inquiries. Congenital inquiries should look in the questionnaire grouped together and asked, so the idea and memory of the respondent is directed easy to the right replies.
The appropriate construction of the questionnaire, i.e. the order in which to put the groups of inquiries, it is besides really of import for increasing respondents ‘ replies. It ‘s obvious, but it is non ever implemented i.e. that personal or general inquiries that the audience can non easy reply ( income, handiness of divorce, etc. ) are non placed on top of a questionnaire.
The audit inquiries are set for look intoing the rightness of the replies in basic inquiries.
An effectual questionnaire should besides be short. Questionnaires that are spanned in a big figure of inquiries overwhelm the respondent or make the feeling of blowing a batch of clip and it is possible non to be answered. This applies to a greater extent when the questionnaire is to be completed by the audience ( Rondos & A ; Papanis, 2007 ) .
The unity of the questionnaire visual aspect from a proficient point of position affects besides well the degree of audience response for two chief grounds. At first, the quality of paper, printing, etc. , creates a favourable sensitivity to the earnestness of the research, therefore demoing more involvement and pay more attempts for complete and right replies. Second, the usage of two or more colourss, the usage of steering discharge and other symbols guide the research worker or the respondent and ease his/her work.
Towards the way of increasing the grade of response and help the research workers or respondents for acquiring every bit much as possible more accurate replies, it is used in the questionnaire to include basic brief instructions on how to finish the inquiries every bit good as basic constructs and definitions of the issues asked.
Finally, each questionnaire should supply separate countries in every unfastened inquiry for coding each response, so as to let its insert with the signifier of a figure in the computing machine for farther processing. In add-on, the questionnaire should hold a specific program if specific methods of infixing informations into the Personal computer ( optical reading methods, etc. ) are traveling to be applied ( Rondos and Papanis, 2007 ) .
The research was quantitative and the informations collected was with the usage of questionnaires that included structured inquiries.
The population was consisted of people frequently going abroad. The sample was drawn purely from tourers entirely. The sample size was 200. The mean age of the people dwelling the sample ranged from 25-55 old ages old and had fulfilled, at lower limit, the basic instruction.
Peoples were asked at the airdromes of Heathrow and El. Venizelos the two chief airdromes of UK and Greece.
Harmonizing to Plog ‘s ( 1974 ) tourer types and features the sample can be separated to allocentric, people who enjoy travel independently and hunt for adventuresome experiences on their vacation. Mid- centric, the great bulk of the people who visit known finishs and do non like explore in their vacation and psycho centric who seems to be diffident and insecure to recognize a journey, they normally visit familiar topographic points like their place environment.
Respondents ‘ demographic features.
The sample size was 200. 80 % were work forces and 20 % were adult females. 62 % were Europeans and 38 % Asian. 80 % constituted the age scope 25 – 45 year old. Sing instruction, most of them were graduate students, more specifically 60 % were keeping a Master and/or a PhD grade. From the socio-economic position, 80 % of the respondents were belonging to upper-middle category. The research took topographic point in October, 2012 at the airdrome mentioned above.
A ) Opinion about Greece
Peoples asked had to click one of the six word mentioned below that characterize the image of Greece.
As it is noticed in the tabular array above, 44 % of the respondents consider Greece as a hapless state and this is may be due to the negative promotion Greece has received the last three old ages as portion of its debt jobs. 19 % think that Greece is related to terrorist act which is rather impressive since there are no terrorist actions go oning in Greece for the last 20 old ages about. 10 % indicated that Greece is a state affected by political instability. Therefore, the sum of the negative perception/ sentiment about Greece sums to 73 % whereas the positive perception/ sentiment sums to 27 % . 22 % considered as the most positive elements of Greece touristry and the ancient history.
The consequences are rather impressive given the socioeconomic position of the respondents. 73 % of people belonging to upper in-between category and have high instruction have a negative sentiment about Greece.
B ) Purpose to see Greece in the close hereafter
77 % of people asked answered negatively i.e. they showed no purpose to see Greece in the close hereafter.
The ground why they had no purpose was expressed in a figure of ways. The replies varied from “ I have no thought ” , “ excessively many work stoppages ” , “ there are no many things to make ” etc.
As it was discussed supra, the image of a state is the consequence of the positive or negative perceptual experiences tourers have about the peculiar state ( Blank & A ; Sussmann, 2000 ) .
The image of a state is so powerful that it can act upon tourer ‘s determination devising every bit good as his/her satisfaction degrees ( Jenkins, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Cavlek ( 2002 ) safety is a important factor for a tourer ‘s determination to see a state. As discussed above, tourers regard safety really extremely and when they a finish is non safe so they select alternate finishs to see.
degree Celsius ) Purpose to travel to a neighbouring tourer finish
For comparing grounds Greece was compared to neighboring Turkey which is a tourist finish competitory to Greece. Political instability in Greece causes an equivocal consequence on Turkey ‘s touristry. When political instability in Greece additions so these tourers tend to replace vacations in Greece for vacations in Turkey. This may be due to the fact that Aegean beach resorts are extremely substitutable.
vitamin D ) Differences among tourers refering political instability.
Asiatic tourers are less sensitive to political instability compared to Europeans. This may be due to the fact that Europeans visit more Greece and they have more alternate and safer finishs to travel to since they are more interested in touristry ( beach vacations ) . As a consequence, they tend to respond strongly against political instability.
On the other manus, Asiatic tourers are more interested in ancient history ( archeological sites ) which do non hold close replacements.
Europeans tend to respond negatively towards counter-violence operations i.e. strong constabulary reactions against demonstrators in comparing to Asiatic tourers. This may be due to the fact that human right issues are more publicized in European media compared to Asiatic media. Another ground may be that Asiatic tourers may experience more comfy with the presence of constabulary.
It is non the first clip that Greece suffers from political instability. In 1970s there was the absolutism and the revolution of pupils in 1974 that was the major ground for the prostration of military junta. In 1990s there were terrorist putschs of the terrorist group “ seventeenth November ” and other smaller 1s. In the current period, there is the job of economic crisis and heavy liability of the state which causes many work stoppages and presentations.
Therefore, it can be suggested that to some extent, political instability is a someway chronic job for Greece.
It is important for the authorities to use strategic direction in order to cover with these crises in touristry and accelerate recovery. Harmonizing to Ritchie ( 2004 ) , directors of tourer finishs that are frequently affected by political instability and economic crises should take strategic direction, crisis direction and catastrophe direction attacks.
Harmonizing to Neumayer ( 2004 ) when political instability, violent events, misdemeanors of human rights occur in a state so tourist reachings to these states will be negatively affected. He goes farther by proposing that tourers prefer states governed by democratic governments and avoid bossy states no affair what the current political scenarios of this state are.
As it was discussed above, tourers prefer to go to peaceable states whereas there are no frights of terrorist act. Harmonizing to Reisinger & A ; Mayando ( 2005 ) tourers decide on the travel finish based on their sensed degree of state ‘s safety.
The crisis direction attack suggested supra should non merely concentrate on reconstructing the degree of safety but should besides cover with reconstructing the state image in the facet of safety ( Sonmez et al. , 1999 ) .
Jarvis ( 2008 ) for the analysis of political hazards suggested a theoretical account of “ praxis-driven ontology ” . Jarvis suggests that a tourer concern should fix the right concern program. The analysis of a state ‘s macro environment will uncover any issues of political instability which can be risk drivers and supply information on the hazards involved to person that s/he may be interested in puting in the touristry of the peculiar state.
Harmonizing to Sonmez et Al. ( 1999 ) a state apart from the crisis direction program should besides outline a crisis direction guidebook.
In peculiar, economic systems that rely to a great extent on the touristry sector should be prepared for crises in order to protect touristry industry ( Maditinos & A ; Vassiliadis, 2008 ) . When touristry recovers so the whole province industry will retrieve, otherwise its GDP and employment and rising prices Numberss will deteriorate.
In order the program to be successful, partnerships between the private and public sector are required. For illustration, touristry experts can be invited to suggest the stairss that need to be taken for Grecian touristry to retrieve. On the other manus, policymakers could besides assist in developing recovery schemes.
Lobbying and public dealingss at a governmental degree is needed e.g. Grecian authorities could offer to foreign tourers excess protection and convince foreign embassies that the political state of affairs is acquiring better. From the minute this is achieved, so the possibility of holding increased Numberss of tourers coming to Greece additions.
At the same clip, concerns involved in touristry can offer particular publicity bundles at low monetary values in order to pull tourers.
In add-on, authorities and touristry companies can utilize the Internet, Social Media and other application to advance Greece ‘s image. It should try to get the better of circuit operators and promote independent traveling.
Furthermore, Greece needs a finish direction system. Tourism is a really of import sector for Grecian economic system and Greece needs to put more in it.
Promotion is the best manner to increase the figure of tourers sing a state. Ritchie & A ; Ritchie ( 2002 ) have designed a finish direction system in Alberta, Canada which is a utile usher for puting up the assorted phases of touristry development. This system has the undermentioned phases:
i‚· Information Needs Assessment – The demands of the touristry industry will be defined through the usage of informations and research assemblage tools.
i‚· Inventory of Information Sources – Information about the assorted touristry finishs is gathered.
i‚· Specification of Key Research Tasks – Selling intelligence about rivals, SWOT analysis and tourer satisfaction are monitored and ROI ( return on investing ) is measured.
Destination direction needs Knowledge Management ( Cooper, 2006 ) . Knowledge direction if the reclamation of information particularly to the phases two and three of the theoretical account discussed above ( Ritchie & A ; Ritchie, 2002 ) . This update of information enables finish direction to accommodate to current demands ( Rimmington & A ; Kozak, 1999 ) .
Despite the jobs the Grecian authorities faces the above recommendations when carefully implemented will assist the touristry industry to beef up. The first thing that the authorities should make is happen all relevant information, analyze it and organize a crisis direction squad who will implement the recovery program.
Greece can anticipate an addition in tourer reachings if it enhances and promotes the state ‘s image as a safe finish. It should foremost develop an effectual finish system but lone authorities functionaries have the right cognition to develop these recovery programs.
Greece should be prepared even at the legal degree by supplying new Torahs that will cover with emerging and crisis conditions at tourer finishs and protect tourers. This ways, tourers ‘ assurance towards Greece will be increased.
Greece is in the center of a awful economic crisis that causes political instability ( public violences, work stoppages etc. ) Political instability creates a negative image, an image of anarchy that is highly harmful for the economic growing of the state.
Grecian touristry functionaries and everybody involved in the touristry industry demand to recognize that a negative image remains for a long clip and that they need to make the right political ambiance for pulling tourers.
The basic characteristics of an effectual crisis direction attack are to supply honest communicating, advance safety and market research ( Turner, 1998 ) . In order to accomplish these ends, Greece needs to implement a practical strategic touristry selling program and image sweetening program and launch it to states where it expects the bulk of tourers.