What iseconomic security?Economic security or financial security is the condition ofhaving stable income or other resources to support a standard ofliving now and in the foreseeable future.
It includes:– predictability of the future cash flow of a person orother economic entity– employment security or job securityDefineatmosphere?The atmosphereis a thin layer of air that protects the Earth’s surface from extreme temperaturesand harmful sun rays. A80. Waste management?.Waste management is the collection, transportationand disposal of waste material.Whatis incineration?Incineration is a waste treatment process thatinvolves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, andheat. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generateelectric power.
Sanitarylandfill?A sanitary landfill is a low-lying area that isfilled with waste rejects. It has a liner at the bottom to prevent thegroundwater from contaminating with the mix of the liquid that oozes from thewaste that is buried called the leachate. Waste is buried in-between layers ofsoil and is compacted nicely to make it a hard surface. When the landfill iscompleted, it is capped with a layer of clay or a synthetic liner in order toprevent water from entering.
A final topsoil cover is placed, compacted andgraded, and various forms of vegetation may be planted in order to reclaim theotherwise useless land.What is anaerobic composting?Anaerobic composting is the creation of fertilisingcompost using bacteria that cannot thrive in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobiccomposting is known to work slowly, but also requires lesser work.FoodSecurity • Food Security is the ability of all the people atall times to access enough food for an active & healthy life. The followingthree conditions must be fulfilled to ensure food security:ü Food must be availableü Each person must have access to itü The food utilized must fulfill nutritionalrequirements Rate of Birth (Natality)• Birth Rate- Number of births per 1000 individuals • Total Fertility Rate- Average number of childrenthat would be born to women in her lifetime MigrationMovement of individuals into or out of place/countryMortalityDeath Rate per thousand individuals.URBANISATION Urbanization refers tothe population shift from rural to urban areas, or “the gradual increase in the proportionof people living in urban areasPYRAMID OF BIOMASSThe amount of living matter in a given habitatexpressed as the weight of organismsper unit areaPYRAMID OF ENERGY• Pyramid of energy shows the amount of energy inputto each trophic level in a given area of an ecosystem over an extended period. IntertidalZone: The area between the highest high tide line andthe lowest low tide line.
• Organisms heremust be able to survive the pounding waves, water level changes, andtemperature changes • Ex. (barnacles, starfish, snails, clams….) NeriticZone: The area below the low tide line which extendsover the continental shelf.• Sunlightpasses through this zone, so photosynthesis can occur (plants can grow). • Many livingthings.
• Coral reefsmay form in water is warm. RAINWATERHARVESTING• Technique ofcollection & storage of rainwater at the surface or in the sub-surfaceaquifer before it is lost as surface runoffWASTELANDAny land, which, because of neglect or degradationis not being used to its full potential can be termed a wastelandWASTELANDRECLAMATION• WastelandReclamation means to develop culturable waste land to put to productive use. POPULATION• Group ofindividuals of species occupying a definite geographic area at a given time isdefined as Population VULNERABILITYThe extent to which a community, structure, servicesor geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact ofparticular hazard, on account of their nature, construction and proximity tohazardous terrains or a disaster prone areaRISKRisk is a “measure of the expected losses due to ahazard event occurring in a given area over a specific time periodDROUGHTDrought is either absence or deficiency of rainfallfrom its normal pattern in a region for an extended period of time leading togeneral suffering in the society. CYCLONECyclone is an meteorological phenomena in which anarea of low pressure characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotatecounter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southernhemisphere of the earth (Coriolis effect