What is an instituition?

Instituitions are the structures and
mechanisms of social order.

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They reflect the cooperation governing
the behavior of a set of individuals.

term “institution” commonly applies to both informal institutions
such as customs, or behavior patterns important to a society, and to particular formal institutions created
by entities such as the government and public services. Primary or
meta-institutions are institutions such as the family that are broad enough to encompass other


Basic Instituitions in a society:

There are different social institution in society.
All of these institutions play an important role in every individual’s
development as a social being. These societies are the family, the church, the
government, the school and the economic institutions.

include the






 legal systems ,

and media.


The family is considered
as the basic unit of society. It is also considered as the society’s oldest
foundation. Accordingly, whatever happens to the family affects the society in




is the basic social institutions from which other social institutions have grown and developed. 

family is different is structure but similar is its function in various societies. 

is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and
Reproduction and procreation of children.

The family is
generally regarded as a major social institution and a locus of
much of a person’s social activity. It is a social unit created by blood,
marriage, or adoption, and can be described as nuclear (parents and children)
or extended


1. Attachment
of Blood Relations: The family members have blood relations with one another. But on
the other hand blood relation is not so important is a family because if the
family members there would be no blood relatives is case if adoption, relation
is that of affinity. So, family is not restricted to the blood relations among
its members.

2. Emotional
Basis: Family institutions is characterized by the emotional
relationships b/w family members. It brings unity and harmony is family members
due to “we feelings” among them. Family members feels themselves attach to on
another on the basis of personal interests and relations.

3. Common
Habitation: Family members have the characteristics to live is a common home.This home may be a single roof or an entire place,
rented or the ancestral home of the family but they live is a particular place
together. The nomadic families also have the common habitation under a tent.

4. Permanent
Relations of Husband Wife: Family is a social institution
is which there exists a permanent relationships b/w the couple to produce young
ones and to look after them.

5. Permanent
Sexual Relations: Only place is which the husband and his wife has permanent
sexual relations and needs satisfaction. This relationship gives a charm to
their social life due to marriage and marital relationships.

6. Universality: Family is a universal
institution recognized and accepted everywhere. Family system is in practice
everywhere even the primitive societies is.

7. Limited
Size: In comparison to other social institutions, family is a small
one but the basic institution. It is very small but very much multi-functional
for society.

8. Closed
Group: Family is a closed group is which the members have tied
themselves to one another. Every person cannot become the group member of a
family but there is small chances of gaining a family like marriage, birth,
adoption etc.

9. Each
Family has a Head: It is also the basic characteristic of a family to has its own
head. It would be the father, mother or any other member of family but must be
a powerful authority to govern the rules of a family.

Permanency: Family is a permanent
social institution is which members live is a lifelong time connected to one


Functions of Family as a Social Institution:


There are two types of general functions of a family instituition,


Essential functions:


 Stable satisfaction of Sexual needs

 Procreation and Rearing of Children

 Provision of Home


 Economic functions

 Educational functions

 Religious functions

 Health related functions





Non essential








Health and recreation




Political control


Physical protection


that the functional perspective emphasizes that social institutions perform
several important functions to help preserve social stability and otherwise
keep a society working. A functional understanding of the family thus stresses
the ways in which the family as a social institution helps make society
possible. As such, the family performs several important functions.

is a Universal Institution

Many sociologists regard the family as the foundation of
society. It forms the basic unit of social organisation and it hard to imagine
how society could function without the family. The family is considered a good
thing for individuals and society.



The family is universal because it performs essential
function necessary for survival and continuity. This then proves that the
family works efficiently together and uses its resources effectively in
society. It regards as functional perspective of family system.

The conflict perspectivearises
primarily from a clash of interests within groups and societies and between
groups and societies. Conflicts also ensue as a result of the difference
between the rate of change in the moral norms of a society and men’s desire,
hopes, dissatisfactions and demands.

The symbolic perspective
arises when
Human beings have the capacity to create symbols with different meanings associated with each. 


symbols are used as means of
communication and thereby become part of our language.

Even the
buildings, dress, the flag, and a type
of color may be taken as symbols indicating some aspect of

human behavior as well as society’s outlook.

These based on
the development that takes place in that instituition with the passage of time.



Types of
families in society?

following types of families exist today, with some families naturally falling
into multiple categories. For example, a single parent family who lives in a
larger, extended family. While these types of families are distinct in
definition, in practice the lines are less clear.


Nuclear Family:

The nuclear family is
the traditional type of family structure. This family type consists of two
parents and children.

able to rely on not only two parents but grandparents, aunts, uncles, brothers,
and sisters helps to create a support system which in turn brings families
closer together. … The individual nuclear family is a
universal social phenomenon.

Single Parent Family:

The single parent family
consists of one parent raising one or more children on her/his own.

It is
the quality of the relationships which counts. Children from single
parent families often display different characteristics to
kids from dual parent families. Of course, this depends on the
individual characteristics of each child and their own
circumstances but they often share similar traits.

Extended Family:

The extended family
structure consists of two or more adults who are related, either by blood or
marriage, living in the same home. This family includes many relatives living
together.Many extended families include cousins, aunts or uncles and
grandparents living together.

An extended
family is a family that extends beyond the
nuclear family, consisting of parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins,
all living nearby or in the same household.


Joint family:

If two or more nuclear
families live together under a common shelter, and share a common hearth, and a
common purse, then this type of family is known as joint family. 

The head of family is its absolute rural.

2. The family owns a common property and the
head of family is the trustee of the property.

3. The landed property is prevented from
fragmentation. An agricultural family finds it economically profitable to sow
larger lands using the lager manpower by joint family.

4. In a joint everyone is assured of meeting
his basic minimum needs in turn everyone performs the work allotted to him by
the head of family.

5. Commonality of place of living saves lot
of expenses which would have otherwise to be made on houses rent of cost of
constructing house and cost of the articles of daily use.

6. There is little chance of children going
astray as there is always somebody to look after them, even when parents are
away for work.

7. In a joint family every member has to do
limited work. Everybody gets more time for recreation and leisure.

8. The family has clear-cut division of
labor. The members do their work efficiently.

9. In rural India joint family is still
considered a matter of pride.


Childless Family

While most people think of family as including children, there are couples who
either cannot or choose not to have children. Childless families consist of a
husband and wife living and working together.




Relationship  of family with society

friends and relationships can be affected by a wide range of issues including
domestic violence, abuse, isolation, mental illness, caring responsibilities
and family breakdown. Poverty is the root cause of many issues within families
and relationships as it can lead to increased financial and emotional pressure.


functional perspective
include The
family performs several essential functions for society. It socializes
children, it provides emotional and practical support for its members, it helps
regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and it provides its members
with a social identity. In addition, sudden or far-reaching changes in the
family’s structure or processes threaten its stability and weaken society.

The conflict that arises is the  family contribution
to social inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by reinforcing
patriarchy. The family can also be a source of conflict, including physical
violence and emotional cruelty, for its own members.

Interactionism Is
the  interaction
of family members and intimate couples involves shared understandings of their
situations. Wives and husbands have different styles of communication, and
social class affects the expectations that spouses have of their marriages and
of each other. 


Treatment with
women and children in the society

The status of women in Pakistan is one of
systemic gender
subordination even though it varies considerably
across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomic
development and the impact of tribal, feudal, and capitalist social formations
on women’s lives. The Pakistani women of today do, however, enjoy a better
status than the past.

Even with these improvements, rampant domestic abuse and a
high rate of child
marriages and forced marriages still remain. Pakistan is currently one of the most dangerous
countries in the world for women.

Pakistan has a dual system of civil and sharia law. The Constitution
of Pakistan recognizes equality between men and
women (Art. 25) states:

 “There shall be
no discrimination on the basis of sex”

 but also recognizes as
valid Sharia law.


Functional perspective:

 A strong majority of
Americans say the country needs to continue making changes to give men and
women equality in this realm. Some 55% believe that men earn more money than
women for doing the same job, and nearly half say there’s a gender gap in
hiring and promotions when it comes to the top jobs in business and


The women and children are an
important part of the victims of the structural violence that ensues. Where
there exists violent conflict, women and children are still the most immediate
victims of that type of conflict. Major conflict that
arises is  women and children who
bear the worst hardships in these situations. They are the most vulnerable, and
therefore the most affected.

Symbolic perspective:

 The obdurate reality that we observe is replete with
examples of inequality and resistance in people’s ongoing social interactions.
Thus, our goal is to present an overview of the territory that symbolic
interaction and sociological studies of emotions share and then analyze the
most challenging direction for interactionist research.

a woman is economically independent because she is educated. She came forward
as labor in economic market after 2nd world war. Many families lose their males
which were source of finance. At that time there is new ideology emerge which
encourage women and bring them in market for themselves survival & societal


Effects of urbanization and Industrialization:

 Industrialization leads
to urbanization by creating economic growth and job
opportunities that draw people to cities. The urbanization process
typically begins when a factory or multiple factories are established within a
region, thus creating a high demand for factory labor.

and urbanization have dramatically changed the shape of families, including the
gender roles.



It transforms societal organizations, the role of the
family, demographic structures, the nature of work, and the way we choose to
live and with whom. It also modifies domestic roles and relations within the
family, and redefines concepts of individual and social responsibility.

As a result, families become smaller
relatively quickly, not only because parents have fewer children on average,
but also because the extended family typical of rural settings is much less
common in urban areas. Children are clearly less useful in urban settlements,
as units of labor and producers, than in rural settings, and are more expensive
to house and feed. In fact, fertility levels in developed countries have
dropped so low that cities are seldom capable of reproducing their own

According to
Parsons after industrialisation the family became nuclear, it had become
structurally isolated from wider family and they had no binding obligation the
their wider kinship, also due to the change in structure and demands of the
family the industrial nuclear family has lost some of its functions to other
institutions such as school and health services.

systems of Pakistan

Social life is a
part of human nature. Due to various reasons society is divided in rural and
urban areas. Similarly. Pakistani society is also divided in rural and urban
society. Before to creation of Pakistan the joint family system was much liked
but today the world social change also affected Pakistani culture. 

 Now in
Today world of globalization and urbanization joint family system is losing its
power and family system in Pakistan has been converted in nuclear family
system. Both the system joint and nuclear has its own advantages and

In joint family system financial burden is share by all family
member, and divided their responsibility and people feel relax, every body
share their happiness and sorrow with each others. 

All people have the right to express the
feeling and share the opinion and lead the lives on the basis of their own
choice if other individual will disagree with the head of the family than it
will be consider as disrespect. So at the end of the day no mutual respect Can
love left among individual.

Joint faimly helps children to understand and
value different relationships respecting each and keeping the feeling of
togetherness alive and such an environment makes them learn adaptability and
adjustment. The presence of cousin brothers and sisters and other family member
improve their capacities to share with one another.

In joint family every body give his opinion
and decision comes to deciding the children future. a joint family contributes
greatly towards raising children if only the members share a good understanding
of adjustment and enough space is given to the parents to decide for their

family system is a family structure that consists of two parents
living with their children, also known as an immediate family.  This system is different from an
extended family system, in which the household may include non-immediate family
members, such as grandparents, aunts and uncles.

Many believe that a nuclear
family is the best arrangement, yielding numerous advantages. However, with any
system, there are also disadvantages.


There are a number of advantages for having a nuclear
family. Let’s take a look at a couple of them, now.

In today’s traditional nuclear families, it is common to
have dual incomes. Both parents work to provide financial stability for
the household, creating a larger cash flow to supply the basic family needs of
housing, food and healthcare. Financial stability also allows the parents to
provide additional extracurricular opportunities for their children, such as
music or athletic lessons. These opportunities allow children to flourish
socially and develop a higher level of confidence.

There is no
interference from other family members.
The parents
can make their own childcare provision.
The family
can visit relatives when they choose to.
family units are more affordable.






May miss
family members as they do not live locally.
grandparents and children will miss out on a close relationship.
members are not close by to be able to look after children or help out the
family in times of crisis.
will have to be paid for.
May be
difficult to get to the rest of the family in times of crisis.












Conflict in Society: Definition, Causes ,Types and other Details


15.2 Sociological Perspectives on the Family


Chapter 2: Equal Treatment for Men and Women








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