What is an instituition?Instituitions are the structures andmechanisms of social order.They reflect the cooperation governingthe behavior of a set of individuals.Theterm “institution” commonly applies to both informal institutionssuch as customs, or behavior patterns important to a society, and to particular formal institutions createdby entities such as the government and public services. Primary ormeta-institutions are institutions such as the family that are broad enough to encompass otherinstitutions. Basic Instituitions in a society:There are different social institution in society.All of these institutions play an important role in every individual’sdevelopment as a social being.

These societies are the family, the church, thegovernment, the school and the economic institutions.·       Instituitionsinclude the·        family, ·       religion,·        political,·       peergroup, ·       economicand·        legal systems , ·       languageand media. The family is consideredas the basic unit of society.

It is also considered as the society’s oldestfoundation. Accordingly, whatever happens to the family affects the society ingeneral  Familyinstituitions:Familyis the basic social institutions from which other social institutions have grown and developed. Afamily is different is structure but similar is its function in various societies.

  Familyis a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation andReproduction and procreation of children.The family isgenerally regarded as a major social institution and a locus ofmuch of a person’s social activity. It is a social unit created by blood,marriage, or adoption, and can be described as nuclear (parents and children)or extendedCharacteristics:1. Attachmentof Blood Relations: The family members have blood relations with one another. But onthe other hand blood relation is not so important is a family because if thefamily members there would be no blood relatives is case if adoption, relationis that of affinity. So, family is not restricted to the blood relations amongits members.2.

EmotionalBasis: Family institutions is characterized by the emotionalrelationships b/w family members. It brings unity and harmony is family membersdue to “we feelings” among them. Family members feels themselves attach to onanother on the basis of personal interests and relations.3. CommonHabitation: Family members have the characteristics to live is a common home.This home may be a single roof or an entire place,rented or the ancestral home of the family but they live is a particular placetogether.

The nomadic families also have the common habitation under a tent.4. PermanentRelations of Husband Wife: Family is a social institutionis which there exists a permanent relationships b/w the couple to produce youngones and to look after them.5.

PermanentSexual Relations: Only place is which the husband and his wife has permanentsexual relations and needs satisfaction. This relationship gives a charm totheir social life due to marriage and marital relationships.6. Universality: Family is a universalinstitution recognized and accepted everywhere.

Family system is in practiceeverywhere even the primitive societies is.7. LimitedSize: In comparison to other social institutions, family is a smallone but the basic institution.

It is very small but very much multi-functionalfor society.8. ClosedGroup: Family is a closed group is which the members have tiedthemselves to one another. Every person cannot become the group member of afamily but there is small chances of gaining a family like marriage, birth,adoption etc.9. EachFamily has a Head: It is also the basic characteristic of a family to has its ownhead. It would be the father, mother or any other member of family but must bea powerful authority to govern the rules of a family.10.

                 Permanency: Family is a permanentsocial institution is which members live is a lifelong time connected to oneanother. Functions of Family as a Social Institution: There are two types of general functions of a family instituition, ØEssential functions: ·        Stable satisfaction of Sexual needs·        Procreation and Rearing of Children·        Provision of Home·        Socialization·        Economic functions·        Educational functions·        Religious functions·        Health related functions    ØNon essentialfunctions: ·       Economic ·       Relegious ·       Educational ·       Health and recreation ·       Civics ·       Political control ·       Physical protection Recallthat the functional perspective emphasizes that social institutions performseveral important functions to help preserve social stability and otherwisekeep a society working. A functional understanding of the family thus stressesthe ways in which the family as a social institution helps make societypossible. As such, the family performs several important functions.Familyis a Universal InstitutionMany sociologists regard the family as the foundation ofsociety. It forms the basic unit of social organisation and it hard to imaginehow society could function without the family. The family is considered a goodthing for individuals and society.   The family is universal because it performs essentialfunction necessary for survival and continuity.

This then proves that thefamily works efficiently together and uses its resources effectively insociety. It regards as functional perspective of family system.The conflict perspectivearisesprimarily from a clash of interests within groups and societies and betweengroups and societies. Conflicts also ensue as a result of the differencebetween the rate of change in the moral norms of a society and men’s desire,hopes, dissatisfactions and demands.The symbolic perspectivearises whenHuman beings have the capacity to create symbols with different meanings associated with each.  symbols are used as means ofcommunication and thereby become part of our language.Even thebuildings, dress, the flag, and a typeof color may be taken as symbols indicating some aspect ofhuman behavior as well as society’s outlook.These based onthe development that takes place in that instituition with the passage of time.

  Types offamilies in society?Thefollowing types of families exist today, with some families naturally fallinginto multiple categories. For example, a single parent family who lives in alarger, extended family. While these types of families are distinct indefinition, in practice the lines are less clear. ·       Nuclear Family:The nuclear family isthe traditional type of family structure.

This family type consists of twoparents and children.Beingable to rely on not only two parents but grandparents, aunts, uncles, brothers,and sisters helps to create a support system which in turn brings familiescloser together. …

The individual nuclear family is auniversal social phenomenon.·       Single Parent Family:The single parent familyconsists of one parent raising one or more children on her/his own.It isthe quality of the relationships which counts. Children from singleparent families often display different characteristics tokids from dual parent families.

Of course, this depends on theindividual characteristics of each child and their owncircumstances but they often share similar traits.·       Extended Family:The extended familystructure consists of two or more adults who are related, either by blood ormarriage, living in the same home. This family includes many relatives livingtogether.Many extended families include cousins, aunts or uncles andgrandparents living together.An extendedfamily is a family that extends beyond thenuclear family, consisting of parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins,all living nearby or in the same household.

 ·       Joint family:If two or more nuclearfamilies live together under a common shelter, and share a common hearth, and acommon purse, then this type of family is known as joint family. The head of family is its absolute rural.2. The family owns a common property and thehead of family is the trustee of the property.

3. The landed property is prevented fromfragmentation. An agricultural family finds it economically profitable to sowlarger lands using the lager manpower by joint family.4. In a joint everyone is assured of meetinghis basic minimum needs in turn everyone performs the work allotted to him bythe head of family.5.

Commonality of place of living saves lotof expenses which would have otherwise to be made on houses rent of cost ofconstructing house and cost of the articles of daily use.6. There is little chance of children goingastray as there is always somebody to look after them, even when parents areaway for work.7. In a joint family every member has to dolimited work. Everybody gets more time for recreation and leisure.8.

The family has clear-cut division oflabor. The members do their work efficiently.9. In rural India joint family is stillconsidered a matter of pride. ·       Childless FamilyWhile most people think of family as including children, there are couples whoeither cannot or choose not to have children.

Childless families consist of ahusband and wife living and working together.   Relationship  of family with societyFamilies,friends and relationships can be affected by a wide range of issues includingdomestic violence, abuse, isolation, mental illness, caring responsibilitiesand family breakdown. Poverty is the root cause of many issues within familiesand relationships as it can lead to increased financial and emotional pressure.

 Thefunctional perspectiveinclude Thefamily performs several essential functions for society. It socializeschildren, it provides emotional and practical support for its members, it helpsregulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and it provides its memberswith a social identity. In addition, sudden or far-reaching changes in thefamily’s structure or processes threaten its stability and weaken society.The conflict that arises is the  family contributionto social inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by reinforcingpatriarchy. The family can also be a source of conflict, including physicalviolence and emotional cruelty, for its own members.SymbolicInteractionism Isthe  interactionof family members and intimate couples involves shared understandings of theirsituations.

Wives and husbands have different styles of communication, andsocial class affects the expectations that spouses have of their marriages andof each other.  Treatment withwomen and children in the societyThe status of women in Pakistan is one ofsystemic gendersubordination even though it varies considerablyacross classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomicdevelopment and the impact of tribal, feudal, and capitalist social formationson women’s lives. The Pakistani women of today do, however, enjoy a betterstatus than the past.Even with these improvements, rampant domestic abuse and ahigh rate of childmarriages and forced marriages still remain. Pakistan is currently one of the most dangerouscountries in the world for women.Pakistan has a dual system of civil and sharia law. The Constitutionof Pakistan recognizes equality between men andwomen (Art. 25) states: “There shall beno discrimination on the basis of sex” but also recognizes asvalid Sharia law.

 Functional perspective: A strong majority ofAmericans say the country needs to continue making changes to give men andwomen equality in this realm. Some 55% believe that men earn more money thanwomen for doing the same job, and nearly half say there’s a gender gap inhiring and promotions when it comes to the top jobs in business andgovernment. Conflictperspective:The women and children are animportant part of the victims of the structural violence that ensues. Wherethere exists violent conflict, women and children are still the most immediatevictims of that type of conflict.

Major conflict thatarises is  women and children whobear the worst hardships in these situations. They are the most vulnerable, andtherefore the most affected.Symbolic perspective: The obdurate reality that we observe is replete withexamples of inequality and resistance in people’s ongoing social interactions.Thus, our goal is to present an overview of the territory that symbolicinteraction and sociological studies of emotions share and then analyze themost challenging direction for interactionist research.Today,a woman is economically independent because she is educated.

She came forwardas labor in economic market after 2nd world war. Many families lose their maleswhich were source of finance. At that time there is new ideology emerge whichencourage women and bring them in market for themselves survival & societaldemands.

 Effects of urbanization and Industrialization: Industrialization leadsto urbanization by creating economic growth and jobopportunities that draw people to cities. The urbanization processtypically begins when a factory or multiple factories are established within aregion, thus creating a high demand for factory labor. Industrializationand urbanization have dramatically changed the shape of families, including thegender roles.

 Functionalism:It transforms societal organizations, the role of thefamily, demographic structures, the nature of work, and the way we choose tolive and with whom. It also modifies domestic roles and relations within thefamily, and redefines concepts of individual and social responsibility.As a result, families become smallerrelatively quickly, not only because parents have fewer children on average,but also because the extended family typical of rural settings is much lesscommon in urban areas.

Children are clearly less useful in urban settlements,as units of labor and producers, than in rural settings, and are more expensiveto house and feed. In fact, fertility levels in developed countries havedropped so low that cities are seldom capable of reproducing their ownpopulations. According toParsons after industrialisation the family became nuclear, it had becomestructurally isolated from wider family and they had no binding obligation thetheir wider kinship, also due to the change in structure and demands of thefamily the industrial nuclear family has lost some of its functions to otherinstitutions such as school and health services.Familysystems of PakistanSocial life is apart of human nature. Due to various reasons society is divided in rural andurban areas. Similarly. Pakistani society is also divided in rural and urbansociety. Before to creation of Pakistan the joint family system was much likedbut today the world social change also affected Pakistani culture.

  Now inToday world of globalization and urbanization joint family system is losing itspower and family system in Pakistan has been converted in nuclear familysystem. Both the system joint and nuclear has its own advantages anddisadvantages.In joint family system financial burden is share by all familymember, and divided their responsibility and people feel relax, every bodyshare their happiness and sorrow with each others. All people have the right to express thefeeling and share the opinion and lead the lives on the basis of their ownchoice if other individual will disagree with the head of the family than itwill be consider as disrespect. So at the end of the day no mutual respect Canlove left among individual.Joint faimly helps children to understand andvalue different relationships respecting each and keeping the feeling oftogetherness alive and such an environment makes them learn adaptability andadjustment. The presence of cousin brothers and sisters and other family memberimprove their capacities to share with one another.

In joint family every body give his opinionand decision comes to deciding the children future. a joint family contributesgreatly towards raising children if only the members share a good understandingof adjustment and enough space is given to the parents to decide for theirchildren. Nuclearfamily system is a family structure that consists of two parentsliving with their children, also known as an immediate family.

 This system is different from anextended family system, in which the household may include non-immediate familymembers, such as grandparents, aunts and uncles.Many believe that a nuclearfamily is the best arrangement, yielding numerous advantages. However, with anysystem, there are also disadvantages.AdvantagesThere are a number of advantages for having a nuclearfamily. Let’s take a look at a couple of them, now.

In today’s traditional nuclear families, it is common tohave dual incomes. Both parents work to provide financial stability forthe household, creating a larger cash flow to supply the basic family needs ofhousing, food and healthcare. Financial stability also allows the parents toprovide additional extracurricular opportunities for their children, such asmusic or athletic lessons.

These opportunities allow children to flourishsocially and develop a higher level of confidence. There is no interference from other family members. The parents can make their own childcare provision. The family can visit relatives when they choose to.

Smaller family units are more affordable.   Disadvantages  May miss family members as they do not live locally. Parents, grandparents and children will miss out on a close relationship. Family members are not close by to be able to look after children or help out the family in times of crisis. Childcare will have to be paid for. May be difficult to get to the rest of the family in times of crisis.      References:·        https://www.slideshare.net/hifzakiyani5/sociology-35847129·        https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-types-of-families-in-society·        http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?culture_universality_components_of_culture_symbols_language_introduction_to_sociology://www.sociologydiscussion.com/society/conflict-in-society-definition-causes-types-and-other-details/2202·        http://open.lib.umn.edu/sociology/chapter/15-2-sociological-perspectives-on-the-family/·        http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/12/11/chapter-2-equal-treatment-for-men-and-women/·        http://pdfproc.lib.msu.edu/?file=/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/africa%20media%20review/vol11no3/jamr011003002.pdf·        https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-30715-2_8·        http://www.markedbyteachers.com/as-and-a-level/sociology/examine-the-view-that-the-family-is-a-universal-institution.html·         ·        http://family.jrank.org/pages/1732/Urbanization-Social-Impacts-Urbanization.html·        http://www.bitlanders.com/blogs/joint-family-system-in-pakistan/250633·        https://getrevising.co.uk/grids/nuclear_family

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