Mammals are thought to have evolved from the class Reptilian particularly within the order Therapists of the subclass Synaptic or “mammal-like reptiles” (Novak 1999). Odalisques scrimption from the late Triassic of Texas about 225 million years old was said to be the earliest known mammal (Lucas and Hunt, 1990). However, with respect to several important characters, Odalisques shows an intermediate condition between contents and mammals and its status as mammals has been doubted (Lucas and Lou 1993).
The recent discovery of Hydrochloric www provides evidence for the earliest known mammal in 195 million year old Cretaceous Chinese sediments, suggesting that the mammals evolved 45 million year earlier than previously recognized (Lou et al. 2001). The small body size of Hydrothermal also reveals that there was more evolutionary diversity among early mammals than had been previously known (Lou et al. 2001). It is also speculated that in as early as Jurassic period mammals were occupying all available ecological niches (Ways 2001).
The present day diversity in mammals is undoubtedly the result of its early radiation through adaptation for different niches. The diversification of placental mammal orders is now unambiguously dated before the KIT boundary (Murphy and O’Brien, 2001; Tavern, et al. 2002; Springer et al. 2003). During the KIT boundary there were extremely harsh environmental conditions that probably led to large scale extinctions (Officer et al. 1986).
Subsequent to the KIT transition and Goanna split up there was cosmopolitanism’s of mammals that resulted in a shared lineage of old world mammals distributed in Madagascar and Peninsular India (Krause, et al. 1999). There is also evidence suggesting that the Asian ancestral mammals gave rise to at east one of the group of mammals that first appeared in North America about 55 million years ago (Beard, 2002). Therefore, the Asian region has played a significant role in mammalian radiation in the terrestrial ecosystems of the world. Ginsberg (1981) and Novak (1999) give a good review of the evolutionary history of mammals.
Modern mammals (ca. The last 5,000 years) have been placed under 28 orders, 146 families, 1,192 genera and 4,809 species (Novak 1999). An earlier comprehensive review of the taxonomy and distribution of mammal species of the world was given by Wilson and Redder (1993). They reported 4629 species of living and recently extinct mammals. These living and recently extinct species were distributed among 26 orders, 136 families and 1135 genera. The great majority of the mammal species of the world inhabit terrestrial environments; only 2. 5 % of the species occupy marine habitats.
Retention (Rats, Squirrels and allies) is the largest mammalian order with 201 5 species, more than twice the 925 species described for the next largest order Charioteer (Bats). Both these orders are found naturally on all major land masses except Antarctica (Wilson et. Al. 996). Members of five other orders are also found in terrestrial environments of most regions: Insectivore – shrews and allies (7 timeliest, 4 8 species), Carnivore – dogs, cats, bears, etc. , families, 271 species), Primates – apes, monkeys, lorries and allies (13 families, 233 species), Rationally – deer, bison, etc. (10 families, 220 species), and Logarithm – rabbits and hares (2 families, 80 species). The Periodically – elephants, hippos, rhinos, horses and allies (3 families, 18 species), which are native to both the New World and Old World, are also widely distributed. The mammalian fauna of the Neurotic include 10 orders, 37 families and 643 species (14% of all the species; Cole et al. 1994). The greatest diversity of mammals in the New World is found in the International region, where 12 orders, 50 families and 1096 species occur (Cole et al. 1994).
Eighty percent of the species of the entropic are endemic to the region. The Apoplectic possess 13 orders, 42 families and 843 species (18% of all mammal species, Cole et. Al. 1994). The mammal fauna of the Ethiopians region is diverse and include 13 orders, 52 families and 1045 species (almost 25 % of all species, Cole et. L. 1994). The endemic of the species of mammals is perhaps the highest in the Ethiopians region, with over 90% endemic to the region (Cole et al. 1994). The mammalian fauna of the Oriental region is also diverse and include 43 families and almost 20% of all described mammals species.
More than 60% of the Ethiopians families extend to the Oriental region. Rhinoceroses, elephants, great apes, lorries, and overdid carnivores are present in both the areas, while lemur primates, the distinctive Historiography rodents and the rich assemblage of antelopes are absent from the Oriental region. Families endemic to the Oriental region include the hog- nosed bat (Accreditations), tarsier (Trailside), and gibbons (Holidayed). The mammal fauna of the Orient also include two endemic orders; the flying lemurs (Tetrameter; two species) and the tree shrews (Scandinavia; 19 species) (Cole et . L. The native mammal fauna of the Australian region include 28 families and 472 species (10% of the world’s mammal species). Almost 90% of these species are endemic to the Australian region (Cole et al. 1994). Primates and Carnivore, are represented in Australia by one and two species respectively; both of which are introduced. Mammals in three orders biz. , Cetacean, Sirens and Carnivore inhabit the marine environment. Most marine carnivores are included in the families Debonair, Deteriorate and Poached.
Three additional species of Carnivore that inhabit marine environments include two otters (Emasculated) and polar bear (Residue). Cetacean and marine carnivores inhabit all acorns and adjoining seas, although some members of Cetacean (Planetoids) occur in freshwater lakes and rivers. Carnelian’s are present in coastal and estuarine waters of most continents and some species are found in rest water lakes and rivers as well. This section summarizes the information on mammals with special emphasize on the mammals tot South n Asia, which is part tot the Indo-Malay/Oriental realm.
South As is comprised of the erstwhile British India which included Burma, now Manner, besides the Indian subcontinent – Pakistan, India, Sir Lankan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan – (Billboard, 1901). With an area of 5026230 km and diverse biomass/habitat types South Asia has 13 orders, 51 families, 222 genera and 545 species of mammals (Table 1) (Rodgers, et al. 2000; Roberts, 1997; Hooker, 1906; Main, 1974). Early naturalists and zoologists have together studied the mammals of South Asia for well over 1 50 years. Key publications on the taxonomy of the South Asian mammals are given below. . India: Jerked (1867), Billboard (1888 & 1891), Wrought (AAA and Bibb & 1919), pock (1939 & 1941), Allergen & Morrison-Scott (1951), Allergen (1961), and Prater (1971). B. Pakistan:, Mad and Kigali (1979), Roberts (1997). C. Nepal: Hodgkin (1841), Grubber (1969), wetted (1969), (1969), Mitchell (1975), Abe (1982). D. Bangladesh: Khan (1984), Khan (1985), Karakas and Karakas (1984). E. N Lankan: Cellarer (1851), Ginsberg and MCKay (1970), Hill (1980), MCKay (1984), Phillips (1980, 1981, and 1984). F. Manner: Anthony (1941), -run Yin (1967). . Order Insectivore: Insectivore includes 48 species, in 16 genera and three families. The three families of South Asian insectivores are Reinvaded (hedge-hogs), Dilapidate (moles), and Exorcised (shrews) (Table 1). Reinvaded: Seven species (33. 33% of the world’s reinforces) are found in South Asia, of which three are endemic. One of which (Hemispheric nutrients) is endemic to South India, while two (Hemispheric collards & Hemispheric microbes) are found in India and Pakistan. Two species are also shared with the Apoplectic region.
Dilapidate: Four out of the 42 moles species of the world are present in South Asia, three of which are also found in the Apoplectic region. Exorcised: Constitutes the largest family of Insectivores, having 37 shrew species in South Asia (1 1. 86% of the world’s shrews). Fifteen species are endemic of which six (Corridors inanimateness, Corridors waspish, Corridors Jenkins’, Corridors incubation Corridors appraiser & Concuss day’) are confined to India. Four (Corridors Maya, Solicitor Pearson, Concuss fieldworkers, Concuss calumnies) are endemic to Sir Lankan, and one each to (Corridors smelling) Pakistan and (Corridors rap) Manner.
Out of the remaining three species two (Ferocious ferocious, Concuss Montanan) occur in India and Sir Lankan, while one (Concuss statisticians) is shared by India and Nepal. Twenty species of South Asian shrews also occur in the Apoplectic region. 2. Order Scandinavia: Three out of the 19 species of tree shrews of the world are seen in South Asia; all in the family Depreciated. Nathan Elliot & Utopia incubation are endemic to India (Table 1). 3. Order Charioteer: Bats comprise the second largest order of mammals with 925 pieces all over the world (Conman, 1993). The 142 species of South Asian bats account tort 15. 5% tot the world’s bats in nine timeliest (Table 1). The order Charioteer is broadly divided into two suborders, Incorporated and Microcomputer. Incorporated has only one family, Pterodactyl, which constitutes the fruit bats. Out of the 166 species of fruit bats of the world 16 species occur in South Asia. Two fruit bats (Lateens salami & Pterosaurs fauns) are endemic to India, while four species are shared with the Apoplectic region and one species with the Ethiopians Microcomputer has 16 families all over the world. In South Asia there are representatives of eight families.
The microcomputer families such as Reincorporation, Accreditations, Incarcerated, Masterminded and Reincorporated are restricted to the Old World, while Embroidered,. Postoperatively and Molasses occur both in the New World and Old World. Reincorporation: Bats in this family are known as the mouse-tailed bats. All three species known in the world occur in South Asia. They are also shared with the Apoplectic region. Two of them (give names) extend their range up to the Ethiopians Accreditations: This is a monotonic family of bats known as ‘bumble-bee bats’.
The only species of bumble-bee bat is restricted to a small area of lime stone caves in West Thailand (Conman, 1993) and parts of Manner (Bates et al. 2001). Embroidered: The bats in this family are called ‘sheath-winged or sac-winged bats’. Out of the 47 known speciesћ seven are found in South Asia. Three species also occur in the Apoplectic region, two in the Ethiopians region while Calamitous calamitous extends its range up to the Australian region. Incarcerated: This family of bats commonly known as slit-faced bats, consists of 12 species in one genera and is represented by one species (name) in South Asia.
This is endemic to Manner. Masterminded: Bats in this family are known as false-vampire bats. This family is represented by 2 species (names) in South Asia; one of which also occurs in the Apoplectic region. Reincorporated: Horse-shoe bats belong to a diverse family with 39 species (30% of the world’s horse-shoe bats) in South Asia. Six species of horse-shoe bats are endemic to the region, of which four (Rainspouts cognates, Rainspouts imitates, Hippodromes drawings and Hippodromes hopefully) are confined to India and two (Hippodromes landing and Hippodromes superior) occur in India and Sir Lankan. Species of horse-shoe bats are shared with the Apoplectic region and two with the Australian region. Postoperatively: Evening bats or lie title brown tats b belong to the largest Tamil tot bats with 69 species – 21 . 7% of the world’s evening bats occurring in South Asia. Ten species are endemic to the region, of which five (Epistle’s Anthony, Epistle’s aloofer, Epistle’s leprous, Epistle’s pigpens and Hierarchically mortar) are endemic to Manner, two (Appetites Tate and Marina crises) to India, two (Epistle’s dormer’ and Customs palladiums) to India and Pakistan, and one (Mottos Aquarius) to India and Nepal. Species of evening bats are also shared with the Apoplectic region, nine are shared with the Ethiopians region and four with the Molasses: This family is represented by only four species in South Asia, out of which one (Topmost wrought) is endemic to India. The other three species of free- tailed bats are shared with the Apoplectic region, while two also occur in Ethiopians 4. Order Primates: Primates are represented by 3 families and 21 species in South Asia (Table 1). Endemics of primates is rather high in the region.
Loraine: This family of primates commonly known as lorries, consists of three species, woo of which are endemic to South Asia. One species (Loris tardiness) is confined to Sir Lankan while the other (Loris literariness) is distributed in Sir Lankan and India Cones, in press). The third species of Ions (Injustices congou) extends its distribution up to the Apoplectic region. Corticosteroids: There are 16 species of monkeys in South Asia. These represent 19. 75% of the world’s monkey species. Nine of these are macaques and seven languor. Three species of macaques and four species languor are endemic to South Asia.
One species each of macaque (Macaw Sonics) and languor (Therapeutics talus) are confined to Sir Lankan, while two species of macaques (Macaw radiate and Macaw silence) and one languor (Therapeutics Johnnie) are confined to India. Therapeutics palliates occurs in India, Bangladesh and Manner, while Therapeutics gee is restricted to India and Bhutan. Six species of South Asian Corticosteroids are also found in the Apoplectic region. Holidayed: Eighteen per cent of the world’s gibbons are found in South Asia. Both species (names) are also found in the Apoplectic region. . Order Carnivore: This order is distributed all continents (except Antarctica and Australia) and the world’s acorns (Wastewater, 1993). The order includes 7 families and 69 species in South Asia (Table 1). Candida: Including the domestic dog, there are 9 species of dogs (26. 47% of the world’s dog species) in South Asia. Eight species of South Asian dogs also occur in the Apoplectic region, three species occur in Ethiopians region, and three in the Neurotic region. The domestic dog (Scans familiars) is found in the Entropic and the Australian region as well.
However, ancient DNA evidence point at the O origin of New World domestic dogs (Leonard et al. 2002; Javelins et al. 2002) The Dingo (Scans familiars dingo) is in fact a form of domestic dog introduced into Australia several thousand years ago (Grimmer and Trembler, 1990). The fox Pulses banalities is endemic to South Asia and is distributed in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The wolf in the Indian subcontinent is now know from three divergent, ancient and paratactic lineages within the morphologically classified wolf in the region (Sahara et al. 004). Residue: There are five species of bears in South Asia, four of which are shared with the Apoplectic. One species (name) is shared with the Neurotic region. Mellitus rising is endemic to South Asia and is distributed in India, Sir Lankan and Nepal. Emasculated: Seventeen species of weasels, otters and martens are found in South Asia. One species (name) is endemic. 14 species also occur in the Apoplectic region, while Millimeter cheapens is found in the Ethiopians region as well. The endemic Martens goatskins is confined to South India.
Override: Thirteen species of palm civets and civet cats occur in South Asia. Three are endemic to the region of which two (Verviers cavetti and Paradoxes Guerdon) are confined to South India and one (Paradoxes zealousness) to Sir Lankan. Seven species of South Asian override also occur in the Paleolithic region. Hereditary: There are six species of mongooses in South Asia. Three (Herpes’s focus, Herpes’s smith”, and Herpes’s vitriolic) are endemic to India and Sir Lankan. The three other species of mongoose are also found in the Apoplectic region.
Hennaed: Of the four species of hyena’s of the world only Hyena hyena is seen in South Asia. This species extends its distribution to the Apoplectic and Ethiopians regions also. Felid: South Asia is probably the richest in cats with 50% of the world’s species of tats occurring here. Of the 18 species including the domestic cat, 13 are also found in the Apoplectic, region and seven occur in the Ethiopians region. The domestic cat (name) occurs in the Neurotic, International and Australian regions as well. The cheetah Cationic Subsets is believed to be extinct in South Asia.
The rusty spotted cat Parsimonious rubbings, is the only endemic cat in the region, which is endemic to India and Sir Lankan. 6. Cetacean: Thirty- one species of marine mammals including whales and dolphins representing seven families possibly occur in the waters in and around South Asia Table 1). Order Cetacean is divided into two sub orders; Dentition (toothed whales) and Mysteries (baleen whales). Representatives of five out of the six dentition families of the world occur in South Asia, whereas only two out of the four families of baleen whale species occur in South Asia.
Planetoids : Two out of the five species tot translates or river dolphins tot the world are Dunn in South A n species are endemic to the region. While Platonist gigantic is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, Platonist minor is confined to Pakistan and possibly India also. Delphinine : Marine dolphins constitute the largest family of toothed whales with 1 5 species in South Asia. Poisoned: Out of the six species of porpoises in the world, South Asia has only one. All three species of sperm whales (Physiotherapy) in the world and 3 species of beaked whales (Zipped) are also found in South Asia.
Valedictorian (arousal) and Balanced (right whales) are the two families of baleen whales in South Asia. All six species of arousal in the world are known to occur in South Asia, while only one (Baleen glacial) out the three species of right hales is found within the South Asian limits. 7. Order Sirens: This order contains five species of aquatic mammals, manatees and dugong, in two families. Only Dugong dugong occurs in South Asia. 8. Order Proboscises: This order of Old World mammals includes one family, the Elephantine and three extant species.
Out of these the Asian elephant (Elephants maximums) is found in South Asia, its distribution extending up to the Apoplectic region. Its African cousins Lodgment African and L. Cyclists are endemic to the Ethiopians region. 9. Order Periodically: The prehistorically include 18 species in three families. S. Asia has eight species representing all three families (Table 1). Rhinoceroses: South Asia till recently had three species of rhinos. However, Rhinoceros conscious Cave rhino) is found no more any where in South Asia. It is now confined to Java (Sensationalist and Ramona, 1990).
The Sumatra rhino (name) is found in the Apoplectic region also. Rhinoceros unicorn’s is endemic to South Asia and seen only in India and Nepal. Depreciated: Out of the four species of tapirs in the world only the Malay Tapir (Tapirs indices) occurs in South Asia. Equate: Four species of equines, including the domestic ass and domestic horse, are mound in South Asia. The two species of wild ass found in South Asia also occur in the 10. Order Rationally: Aristocracies are found worldwide on all major land masses except Australia and Antarctica (Grub, 1993).
South Asia has 47 species (21. 36% of the world’s aristocratic) in six families (Table 1). U dad Three species tot pigs, including the domestic pig, occur in South As boar Us scrota extends its distribution up to the Apoplectic region Camellias: Two out of the six species of camellias occur in South Asia; the Dromedary Camel’s dromedaries and Bacteria camel Camel’s bacteria’s. Their ability to withstand extremes of temperature and go without water for extended periods have been exploited through domestication. Camel’s dromedaries is extinct in the wild.
It was first domesticated about 4000 years before present from wild populations that had become restricted to the South Arabian peninsula. Domesticated forms occur from Senegal and Mauritania to Somalia and Kenya, throughout N Africa, the Middle East, Arabia and Iran to NW India. There are feral populations in Australia (Grub, 1993). Camel’s bacteria’s exists in the wild only in SW Mongolia, Kansas, Tagging and Sinking (China). Domesticated in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, north to Astrakhan, Mongolia and China, they produce fertile hybrids with the Dromedary (Grub, 1993).
Deregulated: These mammals represent the smallest of the even-toed ungulates known as chevron or mouse-deer. Out of the four species of tragedies in the world South Asia has only Masochism Menominee, which is endemic to South Asia, and found only in India, Sir Lankan and Nepal. Masochism: Two out of the four species of musk deer occur in South Asia. Both species are also found in the Apoplectic region. Cervical: Ten species of deer (23. 6% of the world’s deer species) are found in South Asia. Out of which seven species also occur in the Apoplectic region.
The red deer (name) extends its range through the Apoplectic region to the Neurotic region. Axis axis is endemic to South Asia, confined to India and Sir Lankan. Bovid: Twenty-nine species of bovines, including the domestic cattle, domestic buffalo, domestic goat and domestic sheep are found in South Asia. Twenty species of South Asian bovines also occur in the Apoplectic region. Six species are endemic to South Asia. Of which Bookplates treacherous, Antelope cervical and Nourished coral are restricted to India and Pakistan, while Traducers quadraphonic is seen in India and Nepal.
Hemorrhage Chimerical occurs in India, Nepal and Bhutan. Hemorrhage hilarious is confined to southwestern India. 1 1 . Order Upholding: Three out of the seven species of pangolin’s of the world occur in South Asia. All species belong to the single family Amandine. Manias caricaturist is endemic to South Asia, occurring in India, Pakistan, Sir Lankan and Bangladesh. Manias Pentecostal occurs in the Apoplectic region as well. 12. Order Retention. This is the largest order tot mammals comprising 28 living implies and more than 2000 species (Wilson and Redder, 1993).
South Asia accounts for 156 species (7. 74% of the world’s rodents) in 6 families (Table 1). Scurried: Thirty-nine species of squirrels are found in South Asia. Thirteen are endemic to the region. Three species biz. , Famously attributes, Ratify indict and Boisterousness basis are confined to India and one to Manner (Callousness prepare). Five species (Famously laird, Famously palmary, Famously sublimates, Ratify macro and Petitions piccalilli’s) occur only in India and Sir Lankan, two (Puppeteers sceneries and Hellholes familiarity) occur in India and
Pakistan, one in India and Nepal (Pedicurist magnifiers), and one is found in India, Nepal and Bhutan (Pedicurist nobility). 19 species of South Asian squirrels are also found in the Apoplectic region. Murdered: This is the largest family of mammals (281 genera and 1326 species) and includes the mice, rats, hamsters, voles, lemmings and gerbils (Musses and Carleton, 1993). South Asia has 107 species of murmurs. Thirty four species of murmurs are endemic to the region; 15 in India (Podiums resizes, Ceremony’s cushiest, Ceremony’s eluvia, Millard gondola, Muss famous, Muss Phillips, Muss plaything,
Rats burrs, Rats palmary, Rats raining, Rats stoic’s, Plainclothesman luscious, Latino libidinal, Latino Montana and Latino roller), five in Sir Lankan (Muss Fernando, Muss mayor’, Rats Montanan, Grammarians moonshines and Vanderbilt enlighten), and one species each in Pakistan (Calamitous hotshot), Nepal (Podiums graph) and Manner (Millard Kathleen). Six species of murmur rodents (Millard Glendale, Muss classical, Inverter inverter, Gerbils Glendale, Hyperactive fertility and Hyperactive winner) are confined to India and Pakistan; while Ceremony’s billboard is confined to India and Sir Lankan.
Idioms crump occurs in India and Nepal and Tombstones melanomas is found in India and Manner. Millard Melinda is distributed in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sir Lankan. Muss bodega occurs in India, Pakistan, Sir Lankan and Manner. Fifty four species of South Asian murmurs are found in the Apoplectic region, five in the Ethiopians region, three in the Australian region and two in the Neurotic region. Monoxide: Only one out of 26 species of dormouse (name) is seen in South Asia. This species is also found in the Apoplectic region. Dipodic : Five out of the 51 species of Jeroboams in the world occur in South Asia.
All 5 are also found in the Apoplectic. Hysterical: Three out of the 1 1 species of porcupines occur in South Asia. All the three species are also found in the Apoplectic region. Cavalcade: Out of the five species of cavils of the world, only the Guiana pig (Caviar propeller) occurs in South Asia. This domesticated species is a very widely used laboratory animal all over the world 13. Order Logarithm: Fifteen species of Alligators occur in South Asia in two families (Table 1). Lip-read: Six species of leopards (hares and rabbits) occur in South Asia.
Four of hose are also found in the Apoplectic region, while one (Lupus cheapens) occurs in the Ethiopians region as well. The domestic rabbit (Aristocrats conscious) is distributed throughout the world. Two species of leopards are endemic to South Asia. They are Capricious hussies, which is seen in India and Nepal, and Lupus necropolis distributed in India, Pakistan, Sir Lankan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Catatonia: Nine species of the shootings (mouse-hares and picks) occur in South Asia. Two of them (Cotton roller and Cotton Tibetan) are endemic to the region; both confined to India. The other seven are also found in the Apoplectic