UiTM is Malaysias largest establishment of higher acquisition in footings of size and population. It has experienced phenomenal growing since its beginning in 1956 and it is still turning. The university has expanded nationally with 12 subdivision campuses, three orbiter campuses, 9 metropolis campuses and 21 attached colleges. With this huge web and a work force of 17,000, the university offers more than 300 academic programmes in a contributing and vivacious environment. It is besides place to some 172,000 pupils.
Soon, Shah Alam is host to 45.5 % of the entire figure of pupils, while the remainder are distributed over the other campuses, with Perlis campus managing the biggest figure ( 6.3 % ) . These campuses provide first-class chances for Bumiputeras all over the state to prosecute higher instruction and achieve higher economic and societal development. UiTM ‘s chief campus started with the laying of its foundation rock on 14 October 1967 by Tun Abdul Razak and by mid 70s, the campus was already in full operation. It acts as the focal point of development and enlargement to a web of 21 other campuses. In the twelvemonth 2004, Shah Alam campus had about 36,000 full-time and 6,500 parttime pupils. There are 13 residential colleges within the campus that house no less than 16,800 pupils. Apart from that, many places around the university besides open their doors to off-campus pupils. About 25 Numberss of modules had in Shah Alam campus. This campus is really close to Shah Alam metropolis Centre and hence public installations and services are within easy range. An added advantage is the fact that Shah Alam is the hub for information engineering and multimedia applications. It is besides easy accessible via the major main roads that link the metropolis to strategic locations in the state.
The university campus provides all staffs and pupils a topographic point for their working, analyzing and even populating. Parking is one of the of import subjects in urban transit planning and traffic direction. This is true excessively for the university campus. In recent old ages, Malaysia ‘s higher instruction has developed quickly, which has led to a dramatic addition of pupils educated on campuses and therefore terrible deficit of land used for learning and researching. The parking system that used in the Shah Alam campus were open-space parking for pupils or visitants and staff card entry and issue system.
Parking installations and plans were besides considerable importance in traffic technology. Most urban and regional commercial centres were entree chiefly by cars. The viability of these countries depends in a big portion on the handiness of convenient parking installations adjacent to or easy accessible to coveted finishs. Therefore, comprehensive parking plans involve planning, design, building, operation and funding parking installations, every bit good as arrangement and enforcement of parking ordinances. Experts agree that, when it comes to on-campus parking, there is no such thing as a one-size fits-all attack. The parking job can be different in each instance to another and the parking job solution besides can be varies.
This survey is about a survey on the supply and demand car-parking installations for technology composite and Melati parking tonss in UiTM chief campus that associated with zonary parking or tendency of form job. The supply auto parking installations is for bing parking tonss in UiTM chief campus, whether it ‘s adequate infinite for users demand. It besides derived by measuring possible infinites for parking installations, including the possibilities of utilize any on-street parking.
In Universiti Teknologi Mara ( UiTM ) Shah Alam, among the most ailment from pupils, are the parking installations jobs. For pupils, UiTM had provided assorted parking country surround the edifice. As technology pupils, they have picks to park at Melati, Mawar and near Dataran Cendekia parking ( environing technology complex edifice ) . Although they are several of parking installations near technology composite edifice, the pupils are still holding the parking job. There are merely ailments from pupils about this parking job in UiTM and no proficient groundss to turn out it.
The demand for university or public parking country has increased drastically in recent old ages by the increasing figure of pupils particularly for non-resident. An bing parking supply remained and it does non increase in proportion with demand parking. This will consequence the doomed of clip by the users for limited parking infinite searching. Even though parking demands and parking issues have ever been a major concern for establishment organisations, it often fails to have proper planning procedures, including supplying necessary security precautions. Other than that, illegal parking causes traffic circulation jobs. For illustration, one or more parking tonss were used for park building stuffs other than vehicles.
For supplying pupils adequate infinite for the land used for learning and researching. The intent of holding an observation or empirical survey is to mensurate the demand between supply parking installations and parking form. Besides, other suggestion can be determine to better the general characteristics bing in the campus parking systems.
1.4 Scope of the Research
The locations for the zonary parking surveies are at the module of technology edifice and beside the college of Melati in UiTM Shah Alam campus. The campus influx and escape of vehicles, the location and usage of parking tonss besides will be analyzed. The mean parking continuance and the usage turnovers of 2 parking tonss are computed from the study informations. Duration of the surveies is on weekday ( 2days ) from 7.30 am to 7.30 autopsy at technology composite and Melati parking tonss.
1.5 Significance of Research
The parking survey of import for determine parking form and tendency demand for campus environment. It besides indispensable to implement parking policy equate the demand and provide parking system in selected parking country in UiTM campus. From the observation, parking can be utilized more expeditiously by the users.
Chapter 2.0: LITERATURE REVIEW
In recent old ages, more and more university employees or pupils tend to hold the conveyance for their installations. As a consequence of this state of affairs, the figure of autos and bikes owned by them is increasing quickly. In add-on, the communicating between universities and communities has become much closer than earlier. This leads to a deficit of campus parking capacity. Assorted researches and theories have been developed to find the supply and demand of parking installations. There are besides many theories about the recommendation and solution of work outing the parking job.
Early on in 1990, McIntyre made a study in 25 community colleges in California and recommended some steps for bettering the campus parking environment. Carl and David ( 2001 ) applied mathematical theoretical accounts to look into the effects of assorted campus parking policies. In mainland China, Leng and Yan ( 2003 ) examined the university campus systems for taking history of the specific conditions. Song and Wang ( 2004 ) conducted several relevant studies in Chinese universities. Overall, nevertheless, few systematic studies of the surveies on campus parking jobs can be found in literature. It can be stated that about all university campus in other state than Malaysia have same job covering with the parking system.
2.2 Types of Parking
Public and private are the two wide classs of parking. Public parking describe as on streets and back streets ( curb-side parking ) or off-street. On the curb-street country, the parking may be free or non and it may modulate or unregulated which is no parking overnight. Curb-street in downtown country normally metered and regulated. For the off-street parking normally in tonss, decks or sole parking constructions operated by the private houses or public bureaus to open to the populace. The certain regulation of some installations may run such as parking on a long term. ( Papacostas, 2001 ) .
Home or flat edifice garages, stables and private roads, or affiliate-specific parking ( license required or entree card to come in place ) . Parking demand stables and pricing agreement schemes features that of import to maximise gross every bit good as to carry through certain intents for pricing strategies. For the stables may be parallel or angled ( 20O-90 O ) .
2.3 Parking Surveies
Harmonizing to the Transportation Planning Handbook, published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers ( p. 199-400 ) the 1992 edition, parking surveies are used to measure the current supply of parking or to be after for future parking demands. Some parking surveies are merely concerned with the adequateness of parking for a peculiar demand, such as a shopping promenade, office edifice, or a athleticss installation. Other surveies are designed to measure the parking conditions in an country to set up clip bounds, parking rates, and the demand for extra parking. Some surveies are used to help operational analyses in relation to removal or alteration of kerb parking. Still others are required to measure residential parking impacted by invasion from outside Parkers. There are a broad assortment of other specialised surveies to run into specific demands. Surveies must be conducted to roll up the needed information about the capacity and usage of bing parking installations. In add-on, information about the demand for parking is needed. Parking surveies may be restricted to a peculiar traffic manufacturer or drawing card, such as a shop, or they may embrace an full part, such as a cardinal concern territory.
Before parking surveies can be initiated, the survey country must be defined. The study country should besides include any country that might be impacted by the parking alterations. The boundary should be drawn to counts by minimising the figure of entryway and issue points.
Parking surveies include fiscal feasibleness, functional design, structural design and demand surveies. For this research, precedence for demand surveies and functional design surveies merely. Demand surveies classified into three major types to find the demand surveies. There are comprehensive, limited and site particular.
Comprehensive demand surveies cover an full country, such as cardinal concern territory. It besides contains the anticipation theoretical accounts which include population growing, demographic, societal and economic tendencies every bit good as tendencies of utilizing the transit manners. Detailed information on use forms from analytical and comprehensive stock lists on and off street were collected excessively. From the information, the deficiency of supply and traffic circulation will be known. Then proposed scenario of for carry throughing awaited demands are developed and evaluated for judgement by governments. Inventories surveies was included list of in writing show of bing information, geometric design, traffic characteristic, traffic operation and traffic control and ordinance. ( Papacostas, 2001 )
Similar to comprehensive surveies, the limited demand surveies non incorporate the geographic component and some demands. This type of demand surveies will look into one type of parking and the appraisal for future demand non required for prognosis. The consequence of study involves field measuring, past instance surveies result and analysis and the information of the relevant information about the instance survey country. The limited parking surveies will be covered on this research.
For site-specific demand surveies, narrow in geographically but analytically or analysis extended. Focus site may include bing, planned or spread outing country for development. Then, information of bing supply and use are taken and future demand will foretell. The information collected under operational conditions such as velocity survey, travel clip and hold, traffic volume, parking, accidents and others.
2.4 Parking Policies
Harmonizing to C. Jotin Khisty ( 1990 ) , the contriver has to postulate or discourse the preparation of parking policies that is one of the more hard undertakings. The trouble lies in organizing parking policies with several other be aftering aims. The undermentioned consideration of holding parking policies may be taken into history:
To plan parking tonss that non effected by the entry and issue of vehicles.
To guarantee that the involvement of concern organisation along the street is enhanced by good parking agreements.
To keep or protect the character of the country by curtailing parking and implementing land-use controls.
Car park countries are infinites that are provided, planned as topographic points to park autos or other vehicles. From the Town and Country Planning Department in Peninsular Malaysia, the policies and guideline criterion has been stated to carry through a better parking environment for urban development.
2.4.1 Implementation Policies
Provision of a Comprehensive Car Parking Plan at Urban Areas
Each local authorization must supply a comprehensive auto park country program at the urban degree for integrating into the Local Plan for a period of 5 to 15 old ages.
Determination of Maximum Limit of Parking Lots
Determine the maximal figure of parking tonss within a metropolis based on radial route capacity that leads to the metropolis Centre.
Detailss of Parking Lot Provision in Development Undertakings
Each developer must sketch elaborate programs refering the proviso of parking tonss harmonizing to criterions in the planning blessing application. Development proposal study should sketch the estimated parking batch demand, measure of tonss that should be provided, and type of auto park construction and payment aggregation methods.
Conditionss Sing Parking Facility in Issuing Certificate of Fitness ( CF )
Interior infinite that is designed to demo a construction that is orderly and clean has a mechanical and electrical system of quality, to make agreement and signage that provides clear motion orientation for users.
The Provision of Shared Car Parks
Promote the execution of assorted or integrated development undertakings that combine three or more land utilizations and of different concern activities within the same edifice / composite.
Joint Use Parking Concept
Separate development country does non transcend 400 metres and has peak parking hours that do non conflict.
Introduction of Parking Impression Scheme
Local governments should heighten the measure of auto park countries in bing countries so that it is able to increase the figure of autos every bit much as 30 % – 60 % from the original measure without necessitating extra land.
Payment Policy for Parking Area
Implement a payment rate that is higher to diminish the figure of autos in the metropolis Centre.
2.4.2 General Parking Policies for University Campus:
Faculty/staff batch is identified by marks at the entrywaies and is for faculty/staff parking. A current faculty/staff license is required.
Student tonss are marked as non-residential pupil parking. A pupil license is required to utilize these tonss, including designated off-street parking associated with campus-owned houses.
Parking at the Engineering Complex parking batch is non permitted for pupils.
Park merely in designated parking countries. Areas designated by xanthous kerbs, hash Markss, or those with no lines denominating a infinite are non available for parking.
Do non park in private roads.
Use merely one parking infinite.
Do non park on the grass.
Do non park in handicapped infinites without a handicapped placard/ license.
Do non park in fire lanes.
Do non park in the faculty/staff batch during reserved times.
Do non park in reserved infinites.
Do non drive on lawns or pavements.
Warnings will be given the first full hebdomad of each semester for autos parked without a valid license, but all other policies will be enforced.
2.5 Guideline Standard by Town and Country Planning Department in Peninsular Malaysia
Standard Classification Harmonizing to the City Population Size Requirement and use of parking infinite depends upon the type, graduated table and concentration of activities and besides the figure of occupants in a metropolis.
Standard Based on Urban Traffic Modal Split
Standards for the proviso of auto parking infinite for assorted types of land utilizations should be formulated based on several values of the average split of private transit manner to the measure of commuters who utilize public transit manners.
Guidelines Provided for Housing Area Car Park
Heavy vehicle parking country in low cost residential country ( including lorry, dawdler, coach and heavy machinery ) .
Housing development that is looking the local route, entree route or cul-de-sacs.
The proviso of auto park countries within condominium development equipped with mechanical equipment.
These auto park guidelines are based on a average split:
High cost condominium or flat – metropolis transcending 1 million dwellers.
High cost condominium or flat – metropolis of 300 1000 to 1 million dwellers.
High cost condominium or flat – metropolis of 100 1000 to 300 1000 dwellers.
Medium cost flat – metropolis transcending 1 million dwellers.
Medium cost flat – metropolis of 300 1000 to 1 million dwellers.
Medium cost flat – metropolis of 100 1000 to 300 1000 dwellers.
Low cost flat – all metropoliss.
Parking Standards for Housing Area Car Parks
Parking Guidelines and Standards for Commercial Area Car Parks
Parking Guidelines for Industrial Area Car Parks
The proviso of clustered auto Parkss.
The proviso of auto park in industrial secret plans.
The proviso of auto park for particular industrial mills.
Parking Standard for Industrial Area Car Park
Parking Guidelines for Institution Area Car Park
Parking Standards of Institution Area Car Park
Parking Standards of Recreation Area Car Park
Parking Guidelines for Other Urban Activities
Chapter 3: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY
Sites designation & A ; choice
Parking surveies informations aggregation
Data statistical analysis & A ; rating
Figure 3.1: Survey Flow Process Chart
3.1 Title, Objective and Scopes
Before start any research, it is frequently necessary to cognize the rubric, nonsubjective and Scopess of research. The demand of holding these stuffs is to cognize the preliminary apprehension of zonary parking surveies. Objective of this research is to finding of current parking for supply between demands and parking form was focused on parking stock list, parking usage study. This full plant will give the parking characteristic ( bing status ) and the entire burden of the current parking in the location during 2 yearss from 7.30am until 7.30pm.
3.2 Sites Identification and Selection
There are many parking tonss within the Shah Alam campus country. The survey country for the study informations is focus at the Engineering Complex and Melati parking country shown at Figure 3.2.1. The location was selected because of high population figure of non-resident and staff. Although, it easy for numerator to number the study informations at this two parking tonss and place the parking supply and parking demand. The focal point of the research was at auto parking installations for pupils and staff in technology module.
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Figure 3.2.1: Locations of two parking tonss to study
3.3 Parking Studies Data Collection
The informations aggregation can be determined from the study. Since kerb parking or off streets parking is an component of parking supply, it is frequently indispensable to gauge the demand for parking and look into the balance between supply and demand. If demand exceeds supply, extra off-street parking may hold to be provided. Type of parking in the Melati parking batch is public parking. While, private parking is on the Engineering Complex parking batch.
First, roll up the figure of inflow and outflow vehicles particularly autos to the survey country. The surveyor must number the figure of autos at entry and issue each parking batch from 7.30 am until 7.30 autopsies for a twenty-four hours. The length of interval clip is I?=15 min. If a vehicle enters the parking batch at clip interval t1 and issues at clip interval t2, so its clip span for parking on the campus is I”t = t2- t1 interval. Assume that the summing up of the travel clip spent on the campus and the clip hold for seeking for a parking batch is non more than 10 min.
Supply is much easier to quantify than is demand because it is a physical count. Demand, on the other manus, is an estimation of the figure of drivers who wish to park in the survey country at any given clip. Supply is by and large changeless, although there can be some alterations during the twenty-four hours ( e.g. , tow away zones during extremum hours, parttime burden zones, etc. ) . Demand varies by clip. In fact, one of the elements to be defined in the survey is the clip of peak demand. In some countries there may be multiple extremums because of the differing uses within the survey country. A simple illustration is an office composite. The peak employee accretion may be by 9.00 am ; while the peak client or visitant accretion may be 11.30 am or 2.30 autopsy. Deliveries or service forces may top out at still different times.
Current demand may be estimated in those survey countries where supply greatly exceeds demand by simply numbering the accrued vehicles at assorted times of the twenty-four hours. However, when the demand reaches 85 per centum or more of the supply, it may non stand for the true demand because there may be extra demand that is non present because of the deficiency of equal parking.
3.4 Data Statistical Analysis and Evaluation
After got the informations, the several statically analysis has to be shown to acknowledge the form of parking demand. Parking measuring and analysis consist of different graph analysis. The consequences can be determined by:
Entire parking supply every bit calculate as parking could be parked in study country over the given period of the survey. However, it does non intend that all vehicles could be parked at same clip.
Number of vehicles per interval vs. clip ( inflow and outflow ) . It can be seen that there are peaks volume of autos matching to the periods.
Number of vehicles vs. realized parking demands in two tonss. The accomplished parking demands associated with these tonss for every 15 proceedingss.
Number of vehicles vs. clip shows the entire parking demands of the campus for each clip interval and comparison between supply and demand of parking.
To work outing the parking job, there are two ways to work out the job, either supply new parking infinites or cut down the parking demand if demand exceeds the supply parking.
Chapter 4.0: Findings AND RESULTS
4.1 Parking Measurement and Analysis
Real clip tendency on parking demand
Variation of demand vs. supply over the period
Parking turn-over at the two parking tonss
4.2 Expected Results
On the footing of these statistical consequences, the jobs have been explored and suggestions have been given for bettering the campus parking system. It is expected that this instance survey can profit the resolution of similar jobs bing in other UiTM subdivision campuses.